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Full text of "A guide to the trees; with sxity-four coloured and one hundred and sixty-four black-and-white plates and fifty-five diagrams"

(i) 



A GUIDE to the TREES 



UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME 

A Guide to the Wild Flowers 
By Alice Lounsberry and Mrs. Ellis Rowan 




3 UTE XXXV. RED MAPLE. Acer rubr urn. Frontispi 




A GUIDE 

TO THE 

TREES 



BY 

ALICE LOUNSBERRY 

Author of "A Guide to the Wild Flowers " 

WITH SIXTY-FOUR COLOURED AND ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-FOUR 
BLACK-AND-WHITE PLATES AND FIFTY-FIVE DIAGRAMS 

BY 

MRS. ELLIS ROWAN 

Illustrator of "A Guide to the Wild Flowers " 



TKflftb an f ntroouction 

BY 

DR. N. L BRITTON 

Emeritus Professor of Botany, Columbia University, Author of "An Illustrated 
Flora" and Director-in-Chief of the New York Botanical Garden. 




NEW YORK 

FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY 

PUBLISHERS 



Copyright, Igoo, by 
Frederick A. Stokes Company 



422 
U3 



Printed in the United States of America 



Preface. 

There is a solemnity, a repose about the great trees, and the 
restless, ceaseless stirring of the small ones is full of mystery. 
So self-evident are they, so close at hand that we almost find 
ourselves in danger of becoming oblivious to their presence. 
They never intrude upon the attention ; they rather pursue 
indomitably their own way. As landmarks of history many 
trees have been revered ; traditions and superstitions have 
clustered about them while in mute eloquence they have 
answered the people's expectations. In England, to-day, there 
are oaks standing that knew the ground before its conquest by 
the Romans. Nothing is grander than are trees. Nothing 
gives of its best more freely to man. And to each one 
there is an individuality which having once been observed 
may be traced into the folk-lore of nations. But before the 
trees can truly impress us, before we can appreciate them in 
their fullest expression, we should know something of them 
scientifically, their manner of growth, their sources of life and 
the often subtle differences which separate them into families 
and genera and species. Later we may forget these things, 
and regard them simply from the standpoint of their appear- 
ance. To combine, therefore, a necessary amount of scientific 
knowledge while not to lose sight of the character and recog- 
nised place each tree holds in its great world has been an aim 
in the writing of " A Guide to the Trees." 

Nearly two hundred trees and some shrubs have been herein 
included. Among them are all those prominent in North- 
eastern America and a few distinctive and rare species from 
the south and west. Several also that are not indigenous but 
which have become identified with the tree-life of this country 
have been presented. That their positions may, after a simple 
means, be located in the book, they have primarily been classi- 



ri PREFACE. 

ficd according to the soil in which they prefer to grow. This 
is always a notable point, and it is mostly in cultivation that 
we see them thriving under other conditions of soil than those 
of tbeir natural habitat. A river-loving tree is ever loath to 
sacrifice its desire for moisture, and the ones from the dry hill- 
tops are chary of venturing into the swamps. Trees that pre- 
fer to grow near water are placed in the first section, then 
follow those of moist soil, those of rich soil, those of sandy or 
rocky soil and those of dry soil respectively. Within these five 
sections the order in which they have been arranged has been 
with a regard to the peculiarities of their leaves. The simplest 
forms, those with entire edges, and which grow alternately on 
the branches, are placed first, and through their variations such 
leaves continue to follow until those with lobed edges are 
reached. Simple, opposite leaves are next, and are arranged 
in the same order, relating to the character of their margins. 
Then following in the same way are compound, alternate leaves, 
and finally compound, opposite leaves. Towards the end of 
the sections will be found the coniferous trees. 

The descriptions of the trees are headed by their common 
name, or by several common names when they exist, and by 
their scientific name. These latter are in accordance with 
those sanctioned by Professor Sargent and Dr. Britton. So 
that the eye can quickly find them are then set forth the 
family, shape, height, range and time of bloom of the plants. 
An analysis of their parts is given, in which the special features 
of the bark, the leaves, the bloom and the fruit are mentioned. 
Throughout the book no technical terms have been used that 
are not explained in the chapter, " Illustrated Terms." 

As the leading points of recognition in connection with the 
trees have been thus concisely given, the privilege has been 
taken of admitting into the text any impressions or notes of 
inferest that the trees have themselves suggested. 

In the chapter, " The Growth of the Trees," the story is 
simply told of their development from the seed into a full- 



PREFACE. vii 

grown tree. To know something of their ways and struggle 
for life cannot but add deeply to the interest they inspire. 
Stress also has been laid on the blooming of the trees, for 
although the advantages of a trained observation are being 
more keenly realised, there are still many that are quite un- 
conscious of the beauty and fineness of many of their flowers. 
To see the hanging crimson bloom of the red maple is as 
beautiful although in a different way as the unfolding of the 
magnolias. 

An advanced and exquisite feature of the book is its sixty- 
four illustrations in colour. The originals were painted by 
Mrs. Rowan with great spirit and accuracy. One hundred 
pen-and-ink sketches form excellent studies and the many 
small representations of trees are very attractive. No labour 
has, in fact, been spared that the book may satisfactorily fill 
the gap there seems to be for such an one. 

It is with the greatest pleasure that mention is here made of 
the encouragement that has been given to the writing of " A 
Guide to the Trees." All that have known of its progress have 
shown in it a kind interest. Especially is it desired to express 
appreciation of the impetus given to the work by Mr. George 
Vanderbilt, who has done much to further the valuable study 
of forestry. From his herbarium fresh specimens were con- 
tinually supplied to Mrs. Rowan and which for illustrating she 
found of inestimable value. To Mr. Beadle, the botanist of 
Biltmore, the most grateful thanks are due, for through his 
collaboration many difficult tangles were pleasantly unravelled. 
To devote his time to Mrs. Rowan and Miss Lounsberry, and 
to give freely from his fund of accurate knowledge he was ever 
ready during their stay at Biltmore. His assistants also were 
most kind and helpful. Dr. Charles Mohr has contributed 
information about the bald cypress, and in many ways Dr. 
Britton's advice has been of importance. 

Away to the trees then let us go, 

For it matters not whether there's rain or snow 

They wait for us. 



Contents. 



PAGK. 

Preface, ....... v 

List of Illustrations, ..... ix 

List of Engravings of Entire Trees, . . xv 

Introduction by Dr. Britton, . . . xix 

Illustrated Terms, ..... i 

The Growth of the Trees, .... 19 

Trees Preferring to Grow Near Water : in Swamps 

and by Running Streams, .... 37 
Trees Preferring to Grow in Moist Soil: Lowlands 

and Meadows, . . . . . .108 

Trees Preferring to Grow in Rich Soil: Forests 

and Thickets, ..... 150 

Trees Preferring to Grow in Sandy or Rocky 

Soil: Hillsides and Barrens, . . . 233 

Trees Preferring to Grow in Light or Dry Soil: 

Upland Places, Meadows and Roadsides, . 263 

Miscellaneous Index, ..... 301 

Index to English Names, .... 303 

Index to Latin Names, .... 38 

Index to Technical Terms, . . . .311 



List of Illustrations. 



The mark *** which appears in the list designates the plates that are pro- 
duced in colour. The number of the page given for each of these coloured 
plates is that of the printed page faced by the coloured plate in each case. 



TLATE. 

I. SEEDS AND EMBRYOS. 

II. MAPLE PLANTLET. 

III. SECTION OF WOOD. 

IV. PINE SEEDLING. 
V. BUDS. ..... 

VI. OAK SEEDLING. 

VII. GREAT-FLOWERED MAGNOLIA. Magnolia fcetida, 
VIII. SMALL MAGNOLIA. Magnolia Virginiana, 

IX. 80URGUM. Nysta sylvatica, 

X. WATER TUPELO. Nyssa biflora, . 

XI. BLACK ALDER. &* verticillata, . 

XII. WILD YELLOW PLUM. Prunut Americana, 
XIII. BUTTON-WOOD. Platanus occidentalism 
XIV- RIVER BIRCH. Bttula nigra, 

XV. 8MOOTH ALDER. Alnusrugesa, . 

XVI. AMERICAN HORNBEAM. Car/t'nus Caroliniana, 

XVII. BLACK WILLOW. Salix nigra, 

XVIII. WESTERN BLACK WILLOW, Salix amygdaloidet, 

XIX. SHINING WILLOW. Salix lucida, . 

XX. BEBB'S WILLOW. Salix Bebbiana, 

XXI. 8ILKY WILLOW. Salix sericea, 

XXII. WEEPING WILLOW. Salix Babylonica, 

XXIII. YELLOW WILLOW. Salix alba vitellina, 

XXIV. BRITTLE WILLOW. Salix fragility 



PAGE. 
31 

3 

5 

29 

3 
35 

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* 38 
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43 

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45 

* 46 
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63 

r 
69 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



XXV. 

XXVI. 

XXVII. 

XXVUI. 

XXIX. 

XXX. 

XXXI. 

XXXII. 

XXXIII. 

XXXIV. 

XXXV. 

XXXVI. 

XXXVII. 

XXXVIII. 

XXXIX. 

XL. 

XLI. 

XLII. 

XLIII. 

XLIV. 

XLV. 

XLVI. 

XL VII. 

XLVIII. 

XLIX. 

L. 

LI. 

LIU 

LIU. 

LIV. 

LV. 

LVI. 

LVII. 

LVIII. 



DOWNY POPLAR. Populus heterophylla, . 

BALM OF GILEAD. Populus candicans, . 

COTTONWOOD. Populus deltoides, 

SWAMP WHITE OAK. Quercus platanoides, 

WILLOW OAK. Quercus Phellos, . 

LAUREL OAK. Quercus lauri/olia, 

COMMON FRINGE TREE. Chionanthus Virginica 

SWEET VIBURNUM. Viburnum Leniago, 

CRANBERRY TREE. Viburnum Opulus, 

HOBBLE-BUSH. Virburnum alni/olium, 

RED MAPLE. Acer rubrum, 

SILVER MAPLE. Acer saccharinum, 

POISON SUMAC. Rhusvernix, 

SWAMP HICKORY. Hicoria minima, v . 

WATER HICKORY. Hicoria aguatica, . 

ASH-LEAVED MAPLE. Acer Negundo, . 

BLACK ASH. Fraxinus nigra, 

RED ASH. Fraxinus Pennsylvania, 

GREEN ASH. Fraxinus lanceolata, 

BALD CYPRUS. Taxodium distichum, . 

SOUTHERN WHITE CEDAR. ChamcecyParis thyoides, 

ARBOR VITAE. Thuja occidentalis, 

AMERICAN LARCH. Larix laricina, 

UMBRELLA-TREE. Magnolia trifetala, . 

NORTH AMERICAN PAPAW. Asimina triloba, 

JAMAICA CAPER TREE. Capparis Jamaicensis 

RED BUD. Cercis Canadensis. 

FOUR-WINGED SNOWDROP TREE. Mohrodendron Carolinum 

NARROW-LEAVED COTTONWOOD. Populus angusti/olia, 

AMERICAN HOLLY, flex o/aca, 

THREE-FLOWERED THORN. Crataegus triftora 

AMERICAN ELM. Ulmus Americana, 

CORKY WHITE ELM. Ulmus racemosa, . 

8LIPPERY ELM. Ulmus fulva, 






7* 


*** 


72 





73 





75 




77 




79 


* ** 


80 


. 


81 


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8a 


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* Frontisp 


iect. 





85 





87 


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88 





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93 





94 





96 


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9 


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10a 


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10a 





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109 


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no 


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no 


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tm, *** 


"4 


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118 


* * * 


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* * * 


120 





123 


. 


125 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



LtX. HACKBERRY. Celtis occidentalis, . 

LX. RED MULBERRY. M or us rubra, . 

LXI. WHITE MULBERRY. Morus alba, . 

LXII. PAPER MULBERRY. Broussonetia papyri/era, 

LXIII. BURR OAK. Querent macrocarpa, . 

LXIV. PIN OAK. Quercus palustris, 

LXV. SWEET GUM. Liqnidambar styraciftua, 

LXVI. CORAL SUMAC. Rhus Metopinm, . 

LXVII. LOCUST. Robinia Neo-Mexicana, . 

LXVIII. AMERICAN MOUNTAIN ASH. Sorbus Americana 

LXIX. BILTMORE ASH. Fraxinus Biltmoreana, 

LXX. WESTERN BLADDER-NUT. Stafihylea Bolanderi 

LXXI. ELDER. Sambuctts Canadensis var. Mexicana 

LXXII. SWEET BUCKEYE, ^sculus octandra, . 

LXXXIII. OHIO BUCKEYE. AVsculus glabra, 

LXXIV. CUCUMBER TREE. Magnolia acuminata, 

LXXV. SMOOTH AZALEA. Azalea arborescent, . 

LXXVI. AMERICAN LINDEN. Tilia Americana, . 

LXXVII. WHITE BASSWOOD. Tilia heterophylla, 

LXXVIII. WILD RED CHERRY Prunus Pennsylvania, 

LXXIX. AMERICAN CRAB-APPLE. Mains coronaria, 

LXXX. NARROW-LEAVED CRAB-APPLE. Mains angusti/olia 

LXXXI. CANADA PLUM. Prunus nigra, . 

LXXXII. WILD PLUM. Prunus snbcordata, . 

LXXXIII. HAWTHORN. Crataegus coccinea, . 

LXXXIV. BLACKTHORN. Cratagns tomentosa, 

LXXXV. DOTTED-FRUITED THORN. Cr at a gus punctata 

LXXXVI. COCKSPUR THORN. Crataegus Crus-Galli, 

LXXXVII. SOUR-WOOD. Oxydendrum arboreum, . 

LXXXVIII. WITCH-HAZEL. Hamamelis Virginiana, 

LXXXIX. AMERICAN CHESTNUT. Castanea dentata, 

XC. CHINQUAPIN. Castanea pumila, . 

XCI. AMERICAN BEECH. Pag us Americana, . 

XCII. CANOE BIRCH. Betula papyri/era, 






"7 


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35 


* * * 


x 3 6 





137 


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140 


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143 





143 


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* * * 


146 





148 


. 


iSi 


* * * 


152 


* * 


154 


. 


155 


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156 


. 


158 


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158 


. 


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166 


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168 


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* * * 



172 



* * * 174 

* * * 176 

* * * 178 



xii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



XCIII. SWEET BIRCH. Bttula Itnta, 
XCIV. YELLOW BIRCH. Bttula lutea, . 

XCV. HAZEL-NUT. Corylut Americana, . . . 

XCVI. HAZELNUT. Corylus rottrata, . 
XCVII. LARQE-TOOTHED A8PEN. Populus grandidentata* 

XCVIII. TULIP TREE. Liriodendron Tuli/i/era, . 

XCIX. WHITE OAK. Querent alba, 

C. RED OAK. Querent rubra, . 

CI. FLOWERING DOQWOOD. Cornut Jlorida, 

CH. ALTERNATE-LEAVED DOQWOOD. Cornut alttrnifolia 

Clll. CATALPA. Calal/a Catal/a, . . . 

CIV. SUGAR MAPLE. Aetr Saccharnm, 

CV. STRIPED MAPLE- Acer Pennsylvanicnm, 

CVI. MOUNTAIN MAPLE. Acer s/icatnm, . 

CVII. FALSE SYCAMORE. Acer Pseudo-Platannt, 

CVIII. LOCUST TREE. Robinia Pseudacacia % . . 

CIX. CLAMMY LOCUST. Robinia vitcotm* 

CX. ROSE ACACIA. Robinia hispida, . 

CXI. HONEY LOCUST. Gleditsia triancantkot, 

CXII. AMERICAN YELLOW-WOOD. Ciadrastis Intea, . 

CXIII. KENTUCKY COFFEE-TREE. Gymnocladnt dioica, 

CXIV. BLACK WALNUT. Jnglant nigra* . 

CXV. BUTTERNUT. Jnglant cinerea % . 

CXVI. MOCKER-NUT. Hicoria alba, . . 

CXVII. 8HAG-BARK HICKORY. Hicoria ovata, . 

CXVIII. 8MALL-FRUITED HICKORY. Hicoria micrccar/a, 

CXIX. WHITE ASH. Fraxinnx Americana* 

CXX. BLUE ASH. Fraxinut qnadrangulata* . . 

CXXI. WHITE PINE. *** Strobnt, . . . 

CXXII. HEMLOCK. Ttnga Canadensis, , . . 

CXXm. BLACK SPRUCE. Picea Mariana, . . . 

CXXIV. WHITE 8PRUCE. AV Canadensis, . . 

CXXV. BAL8AM FIR Abiet baltmmea* 

CXXVI. PERSIMMON. Diot/yrtt Virginiana, 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



xiii 



CXXVI). CALIFORNIA MAHOGANY. X*"* intezri/olia, 

CXXVIti. DWARF THORN. Cratagut nnijlra % 

CXXIX. AMERICAN ASPEN. P*/u/nt tremnhidet, 

CXXX. LIVE OAK. Querent Virginiana, . 

CXXXI. SPANISH OAK. Querent digitata, 

CXXXII. SCARLET OAK. Querent coccinea, 

CXXXIII. BLACK OAK. Querent velutina % . , 

CXXXIV. LABRADOR PINE. Piuut divaricata % 

CXXXV. CANADIAN PINE. Pinut retin0ta % , 

CXXXVI. JERSEY PINE. Pinut Virginian*. 

CXXXVII. LONG-LEAVED PINE. Pinut /aiutrrit, . 

CXXXVIII. SHORT-LEAVED PINE. A!*W echinaia % . 

CXXXIX. PITCH PINE. Pinut rigida, . 

CXL. RED SPRUCE. Picea rubent, 

CXLI. NORWAY SPRUCE. Picea txceZta, . 

CXLII. SNOWBERRY. Symphoricarfot Symphoricarp+t 

CXLIII. SASSAFRAS. Satta/rat Satta/rat, 

CXLIV. WILD BLACK CHERRY. Prnnnt serotina, 

CXLV. APPLE. Mains Mains, 

CXLVI. JUNE-BERRY. Amelanckier Canadensis, 
CHOKE-CHERRY. Prnnnt Virginiana, . 

CXLVII. PEACH. AmygdaZut Pertica, 

CXLVIII. SILVER-LEAF POPLAR. Pe/nZut aZba, 

CXLIX. LOMBARDY POPLAR. Pofulut diiatata, . 

CL. AMERICAN WHITE BIRCH. Betnla /o/uZi/*Zia f 

CLI. HOP-HORNBEAM. Ostrya Virginiana, . 

CLII. POST OAK. Querent minor, 

CLHI. BLACK-JACK. Querent MaryZandiea, . 

CLIV. ROCK CHESTNUT OAK. Querent Primus, 

CLV. CHESTNUT OAK. Querent acuminata, . 

CLVI. BLACK-HAW, Virbnrnnm prunifolium, . 

CLVII. STAGHORN SUMAC. Rhnt hirta, . 

CLVIII. 8MOOTH UPLAND 8UMAC. *<** gZmbru, 

CLIX. AILANTHUt. A slant An* glandule**, 



* * 



* * 



3S 

37 
*39 
340 



34a 

*44 
44 

47 
350 



* * 



* # 



35a 



54 
*S7 
59 
361 

363 
*4 
366 

*** a66 

* a68 

** 

*** 370 

373 
74 
74 
77 
379 
s8i 
rfa 
384 



* 





* * 



xiv 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



CLX. PIG-NUT. Hieoria glabra, . 
CLXI. HORSE CHE8TNUT. Msculus Hi^ocastanum, 
CLXII. HICKORY PINE. Pinus }ungtnt % , 
CLXHI* COMMON JUNIPER. Juniferus communis, 
CLXIV. RED CEDAR. Juni^erus Virginiana* 



* 29a 
294 

296 
298 

** 298 



List of Engravings of Entire Trees, 



8REAT-FLOWERED MAGNOLIA. Magnolia fcetida, 

SMALL MAGNOLIA. Magnolia Virginiana, 

WATER TUPELO. Nyssa biflora, . 

WILD YELLOW PLUM. Prunus Americana, . 

BUTTON-WOOD. Platanus occidentalism . 

WEEPING WILLOW. Salix Babylonica, . 

DOWNY POPLAR. Populus heterophylla, . 

COMMOM FRINGE TREE. Chionanthus Virginica, 

RED MAPLE. Acer rubrum, 

SILVER MAPLE. Acer saccharinum % 

POISON SUMAC. Rhus Vernix, . 

ASH-LEAVED MAPLE. Acer Negundo, . 

SOUTHERN WHITE CEDAR. Chamatcyparis thyoides, 

AMERICAN LARCH. Larix laricina, . 

FOUR-WINGED SNOWDROP TREE. Mohrodendron Carolinum, 

RED BUD. Cercis Canadensis, . . , 

AMERICAN HOLLY. **** opaca, . 

AMERICAN ELM. Ultnus Americana, . 

ENGLISH ELM. Ulmus camfiestris, . 

RED MULBERRY. Morus rubra, . 

WHITE MULBERRY. Morus alba, 

BURR OAK. Quercus macrocarpa, . . 

PIN OAK. Quercus /alustris, 

BILTMORE ASH. Fraxinus Biltmoreana, 

SWEET BUCKEYE. Msculus oclandra, . . 

CALIFORNIA BUCKEYE. ^Esculus California, 



3 
4 
4 
46 
48 
64 
70 
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84 
86 
88 
9 a 
103 
10S 
"4 
113 
117 
120 
124 
xa8 
130 
33 
34 
14a 
47 
149 



xvi LIST OF ENGRAVINGS OF ENTIRE TREES. 



AMERICAN LINDEN. Ti/ia Americana, . 
DOTTED-FRUITED THORN. Crataegus punctata, 
COCKSPUR THORN. Cratagus Crus-Galli, 
TULIP. TREE. Liriodendron Tulipi/era, 
WHITE OAK. Quercus alba, 
RED OAK. Quercus rubra, 
FLOWERING DOGWOOD. Cornus florida, 
CATALPA. Catalpa Catalfa, 
SUGAR MAPLE. Acer Saccharum, 
STRIPED MAPLE. Acer Pennsylvanicum, 
MOUNTAIN MAPLE. Acer sjicatunt, 
FALSE SYCAMORE. Acer Pseudo-Platanus, 
LOCUST TREE. Robinia Pseudacacia, 
HONEY LOCUST. Gleditsia triancanthos, 
AMERICAN YELLOW-WOOD. Cladrastis lutea, 
KENTUCKY COFFEE-TREE. Gymnocladus dioica, 
BLACK WALNUT. Juglans nigra, 
WHITE ASH. Fraxinus Americana, . 
WHITE PINE. Pinus Strobus, 
BALSAM FIR. Abies balsamea, . 
PERSIMMON. Diospyros Virginiana, . 
LIVE OAK. Quercus Virginiana, . 

SPANISH OAK. Quercus digitata % 
CANADIAN PINE. Pinus resinosa % 
LONG-LEAVED PINE. Pinus palustris, . 
PITCH PINE. Pinus rigida, 
NORWAY SPRUCE. Picea excelsa % 
WILD BLACK CHERRY. Prunus serotina, 
JUNE-BERRY, Amelanchier Canadensis, 
PEACH. Amygdalus Persica, . . 

LOMBARDY POPLAR. Populus dilatata, 
AMERICAN WHITE BIRCH. Betula tofulifolia, 
WEEPING BIRCH. Betula fiendula, 



LIST OF ENGRAVINGS OF ENTIRE TREES. xvii 

POST OAK. Quercus minor, ........ 278 

ST AGHORN SUMAC. Rhus hirta % 287 

AILANTHUS. Ailanthus glandulosa, ....... 290 

HORSE CHESTNUT, JEsculus Hipfiocastanum, ..... 293 

RED CEDAR. Juniperus Virginian*, ....... 299 



Introduction. 



Trees are among the most familiar objects in Nature, and 
among the most easily observed and studied ; yet how few 
people know one from another or have an intelligent under- 
standing of their life history ! Again, they are among the 
most important, in their widely different fields of usefulness, 
furnishing as they do, wood for building, tools, implements, 
the manifold kinds of construction, and for fuel ; fruits, fibres, 
resins, gums, drugs and a host of other useful products ; shade 
and seclusion ; ornaments for our parks, lawns and highways, 
while our forests, too long neglected, are coming to be recog- 
nised, after years of education of the people, as having an all- 
important relationship to the flow of streams by conserving the 
rainfall and distributing it normally and gradually, thus natur- 
ally regulating our water-supply. Anything that brings trees 
more closely to our attention, and that makes us realise their 
great importance is of distinct value as an educational agent. 

The greater size of trees as compared with shrubs and herbs 
tends to make them regarded by many as a group of objects 
essentially different from other plants, so much so that we fre- 
quently read statements concerning "Trees, shrubs and 
plants." And yet a tree is not, except in size, so very different 
in its essential structure from its humbler relatives of the 
plant community ; it has roots, a stem, leaves, flowers, fruit 
and seed, as they have ; the fact that all trees bear flowers of 
one kind or another is perhaps not so generally appreciated as 
its possession of the other parts mentioned, due, doubtless, to 
the flowers of many of them being insignificant in size, unim- 



xx INTRODUCTION. 

pressive in colour, and appearing so early in the season that 
they are neither looked for nor noticed. 

That trees have a very well-defined preference as to the 
character of the soils in which they grow most readily and 
healthily is a generalization that is unfamiliar to many, and 
that their surroundings and kind of exposure affect their 
growth to a large degree will also be a new idea to some. 

All these lessons, and a great many more, will be found in 
detail in the pages of this beautiful book, and they are taught 
in language which will be readily intelligible to all, while the 
concise descriptions of the different trees, and of their parts, 
taken in connection with the profuse and excellent illustrations, 
will make easy and attractive the identification of all kinds or- 
dinarily met with in Eastern North America. 

N. L. Britton. 
New York Botanical Garden, 
March 5, 1900. 



Illustrated Terms.* 



In the minds of those that have stepped for awhile out of the 
routine of life and are walking abroad with nature, there seems 
to lurk a resentment of all restraint. The freedom of the 
atmosphere stirs in their nostrils. To have much to do with 
botany and technical terms on such an occasion has especially 
been supposed to blunt the keenness of one's pleasure. Whether 
this be true or not is a matter for the individual to decide. It 
must be granted, however, that there are certain terms that 
we should all know, and which can in no way come between us 
and a close friendship with nature ; they rather help us to ex- 
press our thoughts of the vegetable world more clearly and to 
have a better understanding of, and intimacy with, all that 
grows. 

The technical terms that are used throughout "A Guide to 
the Trees " are simply defined in the present chapter. By refer- 
ence to it, it is thought that even those most unskilled in the 
study of plant life will be able to comprehend the analyses that 
have been given of the trees and to become conversant with 
the principal points to be noticed when identifying species. 

Trees are the grandest members of the vegetable world. 
They are distinguished from shrubs by their greater size and be- 
cause they spring from the ground with a single, erect and 
usually branching trunk. 

Their organs of vegetation are the root, the trunk and 
tranches and the leaves. 

Their organs of reproduction are the products of the flower: 
le fruit and its seeds. 



* When suitable for this chapter, the terms and illustrations have been repeated from 
1 A Guide to the Wild Flowers." 



2 ILLUSTRATED TERMS. 

The Root is the simplest organ of the tree. Its function is 
to absorb nourishment and moisture from the soil, and in it to 
firmly anchor the tree. 

Simple Primary Roots are those which grow singly from 
the base of the seedling and form a main or tap root. They 
then are either lost in their branches or they remain distinct 
and send off side branches. 

Multiple Primary Roots are so called because several, or 
a cluster of roots, grow simultaneously from the base of the 
seedling. 

The Stems of trees are Arboreous that is they differ from 
those of other plants in forming a proper tree trunk. 

The Exogenous Stem (outside-growing) is the one that 
belongs to all northern trees and shrubs. In it the pith, or 
cellular tissue of the centre is, in large trunks, usually insignif- 
icant in quantity, and is surrounded by a zone of wood which 
in its turn is encased in an outer bark. That the wood occurs 
in a larger proportion than do its other parts, is often the only 
difference in arrangement between the stem of a young tree 
and that of an herb. 

The Bark of a tree is divided into the inner and outer barks. 

The Inner Bark is called the Liber or Fibrous Bark. 

The Outer or Cellular Bark is divided into two layers: the 
Green or Inner Layer and the Corky or Outer Layer. 

Sap-Wood or Alburnum is the outermost layers of wood 
through which the sap most freely flows. 

Heart-Wood is the name given to the inner layers of wood. 

The Endogenous Stem (inside-growing) has no distinct 
arrangement of pith, wood and bark. Throughout its whole 
interior the threads of wood are irregularly scattered. 

Leaf-Buds are branches or leafy shoots not yet developed. 
They may be either terminal or axillary. 

Terminal Buds grow at the summit of the stem or 
branches. 

Axillary Buds grow in the axils of the leaves: they are 



ILLUSTRATED TERMS. 3 

also called Lateral Buds because they appear on the sides of 
the stem or branches. 

Naked Buds are those that are without coverings or scales. 

Scaly Buds are protected by scales. 

Latent Buds are those that commonly lie hidden and 
dormant until some circumstance causes them to grow. 

Adventitious Buds usually appear without any order and 
in unexpected places. In their development they often serve 
to replace some part of the tree that has been injured. 

Suckers are ascending branches which arise from subter- 
raneous parts of the stem. Adventitious shoots are also some- 
times called suckers. 

Thorns are slender, sharp-pointed, modified branches which 
are useful to protect a tree from the ravages of small animals. 

Leaves are the digestive organs of a tree and assimilate the 
sap that has been absorbed by the roots into material for sus- 
taining and building up its tissues. They grow from leaf-buds 
and may be regarded as appendages of the stem. The differ- 
ent ways in which they are arranged upon the branches are: 

Alternate when they are borne singly at the nodes. 
(Fig. i.) 

Opposite when two grow at each node of the stem and have 
its semi-circle between them. (Fig. 2.) 

Whorled when they grow in a circle about the stem. 
(Fig. 3.) 

The parts of a leaf are its Blade, the broad or expanded 
portion which is a fibrous network of veins supporting the 
green pulp or soft cellular tissue ; the individual stalk upon 
which the blade is raised, called the Petiole ; and the Stip- 
ules, or a pair of usually flat bodies, often blade-like, at the 
base of the petiole. (Fig. 4.) These latter are often inconspic- 
uous or absent. All parts of the leaf are covered by a thin 
and transparent epidermis. 

The main branches of the leaf's framework are called the 
Ribs or Veins : and the midrib or midvein is the middle one 



ILLUSTRATED TERMS. 



when it is longer and more prominent than the others. (Fig. 4.) 
The numerous sub-divisions of the framework, Veinlets, and 
the finest of these Veinulets. 

In. regard to their venation, leaves are divided into (1) those 
that are Netted-Veined and (2) those that are Parallel- 
Veined. This feature is invariably in accord with the shape 




fig. 2. 



FIG. 3. 



FIG. 5. 



and character of the leaf and should therefore be most care- 
fully observed. 

1. Netted-Veined Leaves are those in which the veins 
branch off from the midrib and again branch into veinlets that 
run together and form a mesh or network. (Fig. 11.) 

Feather-Veined or Pinnately-Veined Leaves are 
netted-veined leaves wherein the veins, from the base to the 



ILLUSTRATED TERMS. 



apex of the leaf, all branch from the sides of the midrib. 
(Fig. 12.) 

Palmately-Veined Leaves have several veins of almost 
equal size which branch from the same point at the base of the 
blade and spread out at different angles towards the margin. 
(Fig. 26.) 

2. Parallel-Veined Leaves are those in which the main 
veins run side by side without branching or running together, 
unless it is by a few almost imperceptible cross-veinlets. 
(Fig. 10.) 

It is according therefore to the structure of their framework 
that leaves assume their great variety of forms. The two 
classes into which they are divided are: Simple Leaves and 
Compound Leaves. 






FIG. 6. 



FIG. 7. 



FIG. 8. 



Simple Leaves are those wherein the blade is unbroken. 

Compound Leaves are those that have the blade split into 
separate parts: each part then forms a leaflet which may be 
without, or have a little stalklet of its own. 

When the leaflets in a compound leaf are at the side of the 
blade, and arranged as in feather-veined or pinnately-veined 
leaves they are said to be Pinnate. In this form they occur 
as Abruptly Pinnate, when the stalk is terminated by a pair 
of leaflets. (Fig. 5.) Odd-Pinnate, when an odd leaflet ter- 
minates the stalk (Fig. 6.); and again in another form when the 



6 ILLUSTRATED TERMS. 

cad leaflet is changed into a tendril, the purpose of which is 
to help the plant in climbing, (Fig. 7.) as in many vines. 

Palmately Compound Leaves have the leaflets arranged 
as ii| a palmately-veined leal (Fig. 8.) 

Leaves may be twice, thrice or more times compound. 
(Fig. 9.) Their leaflets are subject to all the variations of 
simple leaves. 

The most common forms of leaves and leaflets are desig- 
nated by the following terms: 

Linear: the narrowest form of a leaf, several times longer 
than broad : grass-like. (Fig. 10.) 






HA ft 



FIG. II. 



12. 



Lanceolate : long and narrow, slightly broader at or near 
the base and tapering towards the apex. (Figs, i and 3.) 

Oblanceolate : a reversed lanceolate. 

Oblong: when two or three times longer than broad. 
(Fig. 12.) 

Elliptical : oblong and tapering at both ends. (Fig. 13.) 

Oval : broadly-elliptical. (Fig. 14.) 

Ovate : when the outline is similar to the long-section of 
an egg; the broader end downward. (Fig. 15.) 

Ob ovate : a reversed ovate. 



ILLUSTRATED TERMS. 7 

Spatulate: like a spatula, rounded at the apex and taper- 
ig towards the base. (Fig. 16.) 
Orbicular, nearly circular in outline. 
Peltate or Shield-Shaped : orbicular, with the petiole 
tached at or near the middle. (Fig. 17.) 
Cordate or Heart-Shaped: ovate in outline, and haying 
des that form a notch at the base. (Fig. 18.) 
Obcordate : a reversed cordate. 




fig. 13. 



na 15 



M 16. 



Ren 1 ' form or Kidney-Shaped: when the indentation is 
deeper and the leaf more rounded than heart-shaped. (Fig. 19.) 

Auriculate : when the sides of the leaf are prolonged at the 
base into two ears or lobes. (Fig. 20.) 

Sagittate or Arrow-Shapcd: when pointed at the apex 
and having the lobes at the base acute and pointed backward. 
(Fig. 21.) 

To describe the peculiarities of the margins of leaves such 
term art rflujid as 

Entire : those leaves in which the margins form an un- 
broken line. (Fig. 13.) 

Undulate : when the margins are wavy. (Fig. 22.) 

Crenate : when the margins have rounded teeth or appear 
to be scalloped. (Fig. 12.) 



ILLUSTRATED TERMS. 



Serrate : when the margins have short, sharp teeth which 
point forward. (Fig. ii.) 

Incised : when the teeth of the margin are coarse and jagged 
and extend quite far into the leaf. (Fig. 23.) 

Lobed : when the incisions of the margin extend about half 
way to the midrib and in which case the leaf is spoken of as 
being three-lobed, five-lobed, or according to the number of 
lobes that are formed. (Fig. 24.) 




FIG. 17. 



FIG. l8. 



FIG. 19. 



FIG. 20. 



Cleft : when the incisions of the margin reach more than 
half way to the midrib. (Fig. 25.) 

Divided : when the incisions extend to the midrib. 
(Fig. 26.) 

The Sinuses of a leaf are the hollows, or curves that are 
formed between the projecting teeth, or lobes. 

According to the roughness or smoothness of their surfaces, 
leaves, and in fact, any of the parts of a tree are said to be : 

Glabrous : when the surface is not provided with down, or 
hairs. 

Pubescent : when provided with fine hairs, or downy. 

Tomentose : when covered with hairs that are matted and 
woolly. 

Glaucous : when the surface is covered with a powdery sub- 
stance, waxy in nature, called a bloom. 



ILLUSTRATED TERMS. 



'The Inflorescence is the manner in which the flowers are 
arranged upon the stem. It may be either Determinate or 
Indeterminate. When it is determinate the flowers have all 
grown from terminal buds. An indeterminate inflorescence 
expresses that they have grown from axillary or lateral buds. 

A Pedicel is the individual stalk of a flower that is borne in 
a cluster. 

A Peduncle is the stalk of a solitary flower, or the common 
stalk that bears a cluster. 

Sessile is the term used when the leaves or flowers grow 
closely to the stem or branch, and are without either pedicel 
or peduncle. 




FIG. 21. 



FIG. 22. 



FIG. 23. 



FIG. 24. 



When but one flower grows on the end of the stem or flower- 
stalk, it is said to be Terminal, Solitary. (Fig. 43.) 

It is Axillary when the flower, or flowers, grow from the 
axils of the leaves ; that is in the angle formed by the leaf, or 
leaf-stalk, and the stem. (Fig. 27.) 

A Raceme is a flower-cluster in which the flowers grow on 
pedicels that are about equally long, and are arranged along the 
sides of a common stalk. (Fig. 28.) 

A Panicle is a compound raceme. (Fig. 29.) 

A Thysus is a panicle when very compact, and oblong, or 
pyramidal in shape. (Fig. 30.) 



IO 



ILLUSTRATED TERMS. 



A Spike is like a raceme, only the flowers are sessile. 
(Fig. 31.) 

A Catkin or Ament is a scaly sort of spike in which the 
flowers are without petals. Staminate Catkin, (Fig. 32.) Pis- 
tillate Catkin, (Fig. 33.) 

A Head or Capitulum is a short, dense spike that is glob- 
ular in form. (Fig. 34.) 




fig. 25. 



fig. 26. 



fig. 27. 



fig. 28. 



A Corymb is like a raceme, but the lower pedicels are 
elongated so that the flowers all reach about the same height. 
( Fi g. 35.) 

An Umbel is like a corymb, only the pedicels branch from 
the same central point, suggesting the ribs of an umbrella. It 
may be simple or compound. (Fig. 36.) 

A Cyme is a flat-topped flower-cluster, differing from an 
umbel in that its innermost flowers are the first to open. 
(Fig. 37.) 

Bracts are the modified leaves of an inflorescence, or those 
that are under a flower. Usually they are green and of differ- 
ent size and shape than the rest of the foliage ; sometimes, 
however, they are highly-coloured and petal-like. 

Many trees bear both staminate and pistillate blossoms which 
are often separate. 



ILLUSTRATED TERMS. 



ii 



A Staminate Flower is one that has stamens but no pistils. 

A Pistillate Flower is one that has pistils but no stamens. 

When both staminate and pistillate flowers are borne on the 

same tree it is called Monoecious, in one household ; when 




FIG. 29. FIG. 30. FIG. 31. FIG. 32. 

they are borne on different trees they are spoken of as being 
Dioecious, in two households. 

Flowers that possess both of the essential organs of repro- 
duction, the stamens and pistils, are Perfect Flowers. The 
reverse are Imperfect Flowers. 






FIG. 33. FIG. 34. FIG. 3 

Neutrai Flowers have neither stamens nor pistils. 
A Complete Flower is one that is provided with the esset 
tial organs of reproduction, the stamens and pistil ; and the 



12 



ILLUSTRATED TERMS. 



protection organs, the calyx and corolla. (Fig. 38.) Incom- 
plete Flowers lack one of the four organs or more. 

Regular Flowers are those that have the parts of each 
set of organs alike in size and form. (Fig. 39.) Irregular 
Flowers have the parts of one set of organs or more unlike in 
size or shape. (Fig. 40.) 





fig. 36. 



FIG. 37. 





Cohoua 



FIG. 38. FIG. 39. 

The parts then of a complete flower are the calyx and corolla ; 
the stamens and pistil. 

The Calyx (Fig. 38) is the outer set of leaves at the base of 
the flower which rests upon the receptacle or end of the flower- 
stalk. The Sepals are the leaves of the calyx when it is 
divided to the base, and in which case it is said to be Poly- 
sepalous. When, however, the sepals are wholly or partly 
grown together the calyx is Gamosepalous. 

The Corolla is the inner and upper set of leaves. It is the 
alluring part of the flower, and is supposed to attract insects 



ILLUSTRATED TERMS. 



13 



to its whereabouts that its pollen may be carried through their 
agency. The Petals are the leaves of the corolla when it is 
divided to its base. It is then said to be Polypetalous. The 
corolla is Gamopetalous when the petals are wholly or partly 
grown together. 

The Calyx and Corolla are spoken of as parted when they 
are divided nearly to the base. When they are divided about 
to their middle, they are said to be cleft, or lobed. They are 
toothed when the lobes are very small. 




fig. 40. 



fig. 41. 



FIG. 42. 



FIG. 43. 



When the parts of the Calyx and Corolla are united, some 
of the terms used to express their different forms are : 

Salver-Shaped : when the border is flat and spreads out at 
right angles from the top of the tube. (Fig. 41.) 

Wheel-Shaped : when the border spreads out at once from 
a very short tube and suggests the diverging spokes of a wheel. 
(Fig. 42.) 

Campanulate, or Bell-Shaped: when the tube expands 
towards the summit and has no border, or only a very short 
one. (Fig. 43.) 

Funnel-Form : when the tube is narrow below and grad- 
ually spreads to a wide border. (Fig. 44.) 

Tubular: when the tube is prolonged and does not widen 
much towards the summit. (Fig. 45.) 

Labiate : when there is an apparently two-lipped division 
of the parts. In this form of corolla usually two petals grow 



14 



ILLUSTRATED TERMS. 



together and make the upper lip ; the remaining three petals 
join together and form the lower lip. These divisions appear 
mostly as lobes, and it is not always noticed that the corolla 
has five lobes instead of two. (Fig. 46.) 

The preceding forms which have been cited are those that 
belong to the gamopetalous division. The following terms are 
peculiar to polypetalous corollas : 




FIG. 44. 



FIG. 45. 



FIG. 46. 



FIG. 47. 



Rosaceous : when the petals are distinct and without claws, 
as in the rose. 

Papilionaceous, or Butterfly-Shaped. (Fig. 47.) Such 
flowers are usually described in three parts : the Banner, or 
Standard, which is the large upper petal ; the Wings, or the 
two side petals, and the two anterior petals that, commonly 
united in a shape something like the prow of a boat and en- 
closing the reproducing organs, are called the Keel. (Fig. 48.) 

The Stamens or Fertilizing Organs of a plant are com- 
posed of two parts : the Filament, or stalk, which is useful to 
uphold the Anther ; and the Anther, a tiny two-celled box, 
which contains the Pollen. The Pollen is the yellow fertil- 
izing dust which is the essential product of the stamens. 
(Fig. 49.) 

Exserted Stamens are those that protrude from the 
corolla. 

Included Stamens are those that are within the corolla. 



ILLUSTRATED TERMS. 



15 



The Pistil or Seed-Bearing Organ is divided into three 
parts : the Ovary, the Style and the Stigma. (Fig. 50.) 

The Ovary is the lower, expanded part of the pistil which 
contains the ovules, or undeveloped seeds. (Fig. 50.) 

The Style is the slender stalk that usually surmounts the 
ovary. (Fig. 50.) 

The Stigma is the flat or variously formed body that termi- 
nates the style. (Fig. 50.) Unlike the other organs of the 
plant, it is not covered by a thin skin or epidermis. Its surface 
is, therefore, moist and rough, so that it readily receives and 
holds the pollen when it is deposited upon its surface. 

t|W St/gma 




Bah*i* 



~.rAT*ir 



Ktn 




Srru 



fumur. 



FIG. 48. 



FIG. 49. 





FIG. 51. FIG. 52. 

Each tiny pollen grain that alights upon the stigma sends 
out from its under surface a minute tube which pierces down 
through the style until it reaches an ovule below, which it 
quickens into life. This is known as the process of Fertiliza- 
tion. The ovules then develope into Seeds, and the ovary 
enlarges into the Fruit or Seed Vessel. 

Cross-Fertilization takes place when the pollen of one 
flower is carried to the stigma of another by some extraneous 
agency, such as the wind or animal life. 



i6 



ILLUSTRATED TERMS. 



Self-Fertilization occurs when the stigma receives the 
pollen from the stamens in the same flower-cup as itself. It is 
not regarded as being as generally beneficial as when cross- 
fertijization takes place ; and to prevent it, flowers are often 
most ingeniously devised. 

The arrangement of the fruit on the stem is naturally the 
same as that of the flower, and to describe it the same terms 
are used. 

The fruit is in reality the ripened ovary which contains the 
seeds. 

Fleshy Fruits are those in which, as they grow, the ovary 
becomes fleshy or pulpy. Berries are fleshy fruits. 




FIG. 53. FIG. 54. FIG. 55. 

A Pome is a fleshy fruit. In it the calyx-tube adheres to 
the ovary and forms of the fruit the greater part. Both in 
pears and apples, which serve for illustrations, the pods of the 
core are the only parts of the original pistil. 

Stone Fruits are those which are partly fleshy and partly 
hard. 



ILLUSTRATED TERMS. 17 

A Drupe is a stone fruit ; such as a peach or cherry. In 
ripening the outer part of the ovary becomes soft like a berry, 
and the inner part hardens. This formation is the outcome of 
a special construction of the pistil. 

In Dry Fruits the seed vessel hardens, remains herbaceous, 
or it is membranous in texture. The following are those that 
are commonly found on trees : 

A Nut is a dry, usually one-seeded fruit. It is held by an 
involucre of various forms ; such as a cup at the base of the 
acorn and a burr around the chestnut. 

A Samara or Key Fruit is one-seeded, and is furnished 
with a membranous wing. (Figs. 51 and 52.) 

A Capsule or Pod is a dry, many-seeded fruit, which bursts 
open in one piece when ripe and scatters its seeds. (Fig. 53.) 

A Legume is a simple pod which opens into two pieces. 
The pea family bear legumes. (Fig. 54.) 

A Strobile or Cone consists of a number of flat bracts, 
which grow closely and overlap each other forming a head or 
spike and subtend pistils. (Fig. 55.) 

Seeds are the ripened ovules which contain within them the 
new plant, or the embryo. 

They are composed, although found in many different forms, 
of an outer and inner seed coat and the kernel or nucleus. 

The outer coat is frequently hard and shell-like : the inner 
one is membranous and delicate. 

The Kernel or Nucleus is the part within the coats : the 
embryo alone, or the embryo and the nourishing matter by 
which it is surrounded. This latter is called Endosperm, 

The Embryo is the germ, or the rudimentary plantlet 
within the seed. (Plate I.) 

The Hypocotyl is the stemlet of the embryo, and from the 
base of which springs the young root. (Plate I.) 

The Cotyledons or Seed Leaves are the first two leaves 
of a plant, and are usually completely formed in the embryo. 
(Plate I.) In accordance with the number of leaves that first 



18 ILLUSTRATED TERMS. 

grow from the embryo plants are designated as being : Mono- 
cotyledonouSj when there is but one seed-leaf ; Dicotyle- 
donous when there are two ; and Polycotyledonous when 
there are many seed-leaves, as in the pine family. (Plate IV.) 
The Plumule is the first little bud that appears at the sum- 
mit of the hypocotyl and foretells the second growth of leaves. 
(Plate I.) 



The Growth of the Trees. 



Between the little seed that drops into the ground and the 
tall tree that springs from it, the difference is great ; and yet, 
when we know well the seed and have examined its contents, 
we find that the difference is more one of increased growth 
than it is of any dissimilarity in character. Within the seed, 
the tree, in miniature, already lives. As to all things, however, 
we know there must be a beginning, and although, by simply 
cutting open sideways the seed of a maple tree, we may with a 
naked eye see the stem and first two leaves of the future tree 
all snugly curled up in their seed coat ; with justice we ask 
how they came to be there and after what manner do they pro- 
ceed to grow. 

It is then necessary for us to go still further back in the story 
of the tree's growth and to turn our attention to the blossoms 
of the preceding year. Here we shall find the organs of repro- 
duction, the stamens and pistil ; and so small and hidden are 
often these most essential parts that their doings can only be 
successfully followed under a microscope. Carefully placed in 
the ovary of the pistil is the ovule : the part that is eventually 
to become the seed. Its nucleus appears to be a mass of pulpy, 
tissue-like substance and it is enclosed in one or two coats. 
It is here, within the nucleus that the embryo or seedling is 
formed, while the coats develop into its seed coat. At the 
apex of the ovule, it must be noticed, there is a little hole that 
extends through the coats and which is called the orifice. 

Shortly after the blossom has unfolded there appears in the 
nucleus of the ovule, a small cavity. It is lined with a fine 
membrane-like tissue, and soon forms a closed sac. At the 
upper end of the sac and near the orifice is a tiny, round body, 



ao THE GROWTH OF THE TREES. 

something like the smallest bladder imaginable. The sac is the 
embryo-sac and the small body or cell is the embryo in its 
primary state. 

Now although nature has provided that this little cell should 
be present its future growth is dependent on whether or no the 
stigma has received from a stamen the golden dust, or pollen. 
In fact, it can never become other than what it originally is un- 
less the process of fertilization has taken place. When this is 
so, however, the tiny grain of powder that alights on the moist 
surface of the stigma, sends forth from its under side a minute 
tube. It pierces down through the stigma and style until it 
reaches the orifice of the ovule, then it enters the embryo-sac 
and finally touches and quickens the little cell into life. Within 
this vitalized germ there are usually some tiny grains, a muci- 
laginous liquid and a pulpy mass, or its nucleus. As we have 
already seen they are all enclosed in a fine, membranous coat. 
We have here then a typical cell, as it is generally called, and 
one that is the ancestor of all the countless millions of similar 
ones that combine to form the structure of a small plant or the 
greatest tree. It is simply by the expansion and multiplication 
of such cells that growth takes place. 

After this first cell has enlarged to its limit, it forms a cross 
partition which divides it into two cohering cells. Soon 
another one forms a partition and divides into two more cells ; 
and so they continue to increase and to form the hypocotyl of 
the embryo. It is thus that, encased in its brown seed coat, the 
miniature tree or embryo is formed and begins to grow. As it 
does so it draws freely on the nourishing matter that in various 
forms it finds close at hand. 

Dame Nature never forgets, and so well equipped is the em- 
bryo that when it touches the soil and begins to germinate, it 
has but to continue the multiplication of its cells, or as more 
generally expressed, to increase in cellular tissue ; to assume 
the upright position of a tree and to bear its two first leaves 
uoward to the light and air. At the same time from the bottom 




at 



INFOLDING 
EMtKYO IN SCCO COAT UiBRVO 




FL0MUI.e.COTYLtt>OM5 
KVJOCOTYt ANO HOOTS 




trNfeuuNa n.ANTurr e 

HOUSE CHESTNUT 




#t*MINAT1NO PLAHtXtT 
OTMAMJ 



PLATE I. 
(21) 



22 THE GROWTH OF THE TREES. 

of its stem the root begins to grow and to take a firm hold on 
the nourishing soil. 

This rudimentary plantlet, as has been already said, can be 
readily seen by cutting open the seeds of a maple tree, it being 
one accessible to many, and the horse-chestnut seeds also show 
it in another of its numerous forms. To see something of cell 
formation, it is only necessary to magnify the young stem or 
leaves of a plant, or better still the young root ends which, 
being more transparent, are, for the purpose, admirable. 

The growth of the tree, therefore, is in two directions. The 
stem, or trunk, grows uprightly, elongates and sends forth 
branches to uphold as large a surface of foliage as possible which 
drinks in abundantly desired gases from the air and assimilates 
also the nourishment the roots have absorbed from the soil. 
The roots in another way seek to lengthen themselves in the 
pliable soil and assiduously to avoid the light of day. 

When the hypocotyl, or little stem of the embryo, has suffi- 
ciently grown to bear above the two seed leaves, we notice that 
it continues to elongate, and that between the cotyledons two 
tiny buds, or the plumule, appear on this newly formed stem. 
They foretell the second pair of leaves and we may regard 
them as having been raised on the stem's second joint. In 
shape they resemble more closely that of the regular foliage of 
the tree than do the cotyledons which in outline are always 
very simple. In some plantlets, even before germination, we 
find between the cotyledons these little buds or forerunners of 
the second pair of leaves. {Plate /.) 

To elongate the stem, therefore, joint by joint, and to unfold 
the leaves that it bears at the summit is the manner of upward 
growth ; and it is by this untiring and unchanging repetition 
of itself that the little plantlet becomes a tree. 

The growth of the root is in a different way. At the begin- 
ning, as we have seen, the root was a new growth from the base 
of the hypocotyl ; and so throughout its entire course of ex- 
istence, it is new growth that proceeds from the extremities. 




PLATE II. GERMINATING MAPLE. 
(23) 



24 THE GROWTH OF THE TREES. 

This fresh, young growth pushes itself through the open soil 
and freely imbibes nutrition until in its turn it becomes old 
and stolid and only of use to produce new shoots. The old 
roots remain firmly in the ground as they at first grew and do 
not elongate themselves joint by joint as do the stems. This 
arrangement is simply a very wise conformance to circum- 
stances. With ease and freedom the branches and leaves can 
move in the atmospheric air that enshrouds them ; but it 
would sadly interfere with the tenacity of the roots' hold on 
the soil to be continually changing their position. 

As we shall, in this book, confine ourselves to the study of 
trees and some shrubs, those that have exogenous stems, it 
would perhaps be well for us to leave for awhile the little plant- 
let in its upright position with its parts beginning to grow, 
(Plate II.) and to look further into the material of which it is 
constructed. The soft tissue alone, while being sufficient for 
mosses and the lower forms of plant-life, would be too yielding 
to uphold the weight of foliage that is borne by a tree. At a 
very early stage, therefore, in large embryos, sometimes even 
while they are in their seed coat, we find traces of wood-fibre. 
It occurs also in herbs only in a much smaller proportion than 
in trees or shrubs. These wood cells, or wood fibre, which we 
find in the wood that surrounds the central pith are very sim- 
ilar in construction to those that form the soft tissue ; only 
they soon lengthen and harden and thicken their walls. Their 
tapering ends also usually overlap each other in a way that 
gives to them additional strength. Again in the wood there 
are ducts : cells which have grown large and long and join to- 
gether so as to form channels, or tubes that run lengthwise 
through the wood. They do not thicken their walls. Instead, 
the so-called dotted ducts are variously marked, sometimes 
with thin places, like dots and which become .holes as they 
grow older, while spiral or annual ducts are bound with spirally- 
coiled fibres, or bands. From the ends of young shoots it is 
often quite possible to uncoil this filmy thread and in doing so 



Wood. 



Inner bark. 



Outer hark. 






PLATE III. 




x. Central pith. 


5. Cambium layer. 


9. Vessels. 


a. Medullary sheath . 


6. Sieve tubes. 


10. Green inner layer. 


3. Wood. 


7. Soft bast cells. 


xi. Corky layer. 


4. Dotted ducts. 


8. Hard bast cells. 


xa. Epidermis. 



(25) 



*5 THE GROWTH OF THE TREES. 

it will be noticed how much it has strengthened the wall of the 
cell. {Plate III.) 

Running vertically throughout the wood there is also a set 
of thin plates of cellular tissue. They are the medullary rays ; 
and it is to them that is owing the beautiful silver grain in 
many varieties of wood. The feature is one that is easily 
noticed. 

In the liber, the inner bark which covers the wood, the wood 
cells grow longer and finer than they do in the wood proper. 
They appear more like fibres and are extremely tough. Bast- 
cells, or bast-fibres, are the names by which they are known. 
{Plate III.) 

The outer bark is made up of soft cellular tissue. In its 
green or inner layer the cells are soft and delicate and have 
within them grains of green colouring matter similar to those 
contained in the leaves. Early in the tree's growth its trunk 
becomes covered with the outer, or corky layer, a substance 
the same as our common cork. It is admirably adapted to pre- 
vent the evaporation of the ascending fluids,and to it is due the 
various colourings that we are familiar with in the twigs and 
branches of different trees. This outer bark, it must be re- 
membered, is finally covered with an epidermis which is also 
a layer of cells. {Plate III.) 

Such is the order in which we should find arranged the stem 
of a young exogenous tree in the first or second season of its 
growth ; and it should now be of interest to us to see how it 
increases year after year in diameter. 

The age of a tree is approximately known by counting its con- 
centric rings of wood ; as every year it generally forms only 
one new layer of wood outside of the old one. The liber also 
makes an annual growth, but inside of that of the year before, 
and next to the surface of the new forming wood. These ad- 
joining parts of the stem are the only two that are annually 
renewed. The process is most interesting. Between the wood 
and the inner side of the liber there is a layer called the cam- 



THE GROWTH OF THE TREES. 27 

bium layer which unites the two. {Plate III.) It is composed 
of young and delicate cells. In the spring, a rich sap, some- 
thing like mucilage in appearance, begins to flow freely and 
to supply to them abundant nourishment. As they then begin 
to increase in a manner that has been already mentioned, the 
inner ones attach themselves to the wood, while the outer ones 
are added to the liber ; and it is in this way that the two an- 
nual layers which really renew the life of the trunk are formed. 

With the bark it is different : the green layer seldom increases 
much after the first year of its growth ; and although the 
corky layer often makes from year to year new growth inside 
of the old, after a time it all dies. It has to contend with the 
roughness of the elements, and it is especially hurt by being 
stretched beyond its endurance by the growing wood and liber 
within. Finally it cracks apart and the rift is patched by the 
formation of new corky layers. As the outer bark vanishes, 
the enlarged sheath of bark is thus torn and patched each suc- 
ceeding year. The outer and older layers of the much mended 
garment of the tree are constantly falling off and decaying. In 
old trees the cambium Jayer and the cells recently formed from 
it only are alive. Furthermore it is only in the younger wood 
that sap ascends. As the wood in each annual ring grows 
older the walls of its cells harden and thicken, and it is no 
longer regarded as a living part of the tree. It is the heart- 
wood and, owing to its dryness and hardness, is chosen in 
preference to the living sap-wood for timber. In different 
species of trees a colouring matter peculiar to each is deposited 
in the cells of the heart-wood and it is therefore of various 
shades. Black in ebony may be cited as an example. 

As we have now thought somewhat about the growth of the 
tree in height and in diameter, we may begin to concern our- 
selves about its branching ; for we shall have little to do with 
simple-stemmed plants, or those which are known as monocoty- 
Iedonous, their embryos having but one seed leaf. Our path 
leads us rather among dicotyledonous trees, which are so called 



28 THE GROWTH OF THE TREES. 

from the fact of their having two cotyledons in the embryo, 
and among those that have more than two, which is a peculiar- 
ity of the pine family. {Plate IV.) 

We can hardly fail to notice when looking at a young plant- 
let with what perfect symmetry its leaves are arranged on the 
stem, and as it continues to grow much of this same order is 
maintained even should it be become the largest tree. It is 
not strange then that branches show much of this same sym- 
metry of arrangement ; for they follow precisely in the wake of 
the leaves. Early in the summer, in the axils of the leaves and 
at their upper sides, we see that buds begin to appear. They 
are axillary buds, and are the progenitors of branches. When 
they begin to grow they pursue the same course of develop- 
ment as did the first stem which sprang from the embryo with 
the little buds between the cotyledons. In the same way they 
grow, joint upon joint ; each one elongating and throwing out 
leaves at its summit. Other buds are formed in the angles of 
their leaves and they also become leaf-bearing branches ; and 
so is this simple process repeated while the structure of the 
tree is building. The only difference between the growth of a 
branch and that of a germinating plantlet is that th^ branch is 
embedded in the larger stem and draws from it its sustenance, 
while the young stem had to forage for itself and strike out 
roots into the ground. It sometimes happens that buds begin 
to grow shortly after they first appear, and again they lie dor- 
mant and hidden until the spring of the next year. 

Little in the life of the tree is more interesting than the ten- 
der care Nature bestows on these young offsprings. Her wis- 
dom is very great ; for should the delicate buds be ruthlessly 
exposed to sudden changes of temperature, or to intense cold, 
they would assuredly perish, and the next season no branches 
would be forthcoming. The button-wood and locusts illustrate 
to us one unique way of guarding leaf-buds from all harm. 
Apparently the base of the leaf-stalk is swollen ; but when 
it is detached from the stem and examined, it is found to be 




PLATE IV. GERMINATING PINE. 
(29) 



3 o THE GROWTH OF THE TREES. 

hollow on the inside in the shape of a tiny candle ex- 
tinguisher; and this is so, simply because it is planned to fit 
snugly over the leaf-bud that within it lies concealed. {Plate 
V.) . Other buds are large and scaly : they are the ones most 
general in northern climates. Those of the horse-chestnut 
tree are very handsome. (Plate V.) Their scales are large 
and leaf-like, and so enwrapped about the tender parts within 
as to effectually protect them from violent changes of temper- 
ature. To further abet them in this object they are lined with 
a soft wool, and on the outside are often covered with a sub- 
stance similar to varnish. It is quite impregnable to damp- 
ness. To open one of these strong buds seems almost like 
prying into futurity; for there in miniature are to be found 
several pairs of leaves, and even the buds of the blossoms. 

Trees that are not subject to branching, or those of the 
monocotyledonous division of endogens, rely for their growth 
on terminal buds. Although branches are borne by the spruces, 
still their terminal buds are also splendid examples of those 
that, unless unfortunately destroyed, prolong the main stem 
throughout the tree's whole course of existence. They ever 
remain distinct from the branches that proceed from them, and 
never lose their own identity. 

There are trees, however, that bear both terminal and axil- 
lary buds : the maples and horse-chestnuts are common exam- 
ples. (Plate V.) In such cases the terminal buds perform the 
same elongation of the branch as they do in single-stemmed 
trees, and the axillary buds are also true to their purpose of 
producing new branches. Usually the terminal buds of these 
trees are the most vigourous, and next to them the upper axillary 
buds have the greatest strength. Should, however, misfortune 
overtake any of these stronger buds, the opportunity would be 
quickly seized by some weaker one to appropriate its nourish- 
ment and to grow. In fact, latent buds lie dormant and some- 
times concealed under the bark for years, and patiently await 
just some such chance to begin their work. Their mission is 




Hidden buds of 
button-wood. 




Terminal and axil- Scaly bud of 
lary buds of maple. horsechestnut. 



PLATE V. 
(31) 



32 THE GROWTH OF THE TREES. 

rather noble. It is to quietly see their stronger rivals flourish 
until death overtakes them, and then to step calmly in and fill 
for them their places. 

The existence of a young bud, however, is a precarious one. 
It has many difficulties with which to contend. Often the 
want of nourishment or light stunts its development ; insects 
devour it, or a belated frost nips it in its early youth. The race 
is truly one of the survival of the fittest. And how great is the 
wisdom of this plan is readily seen, for should every leaf-bud 
be allowed to grow, there would be as many branches the next 
year as there were leaves the one preceding ; and this would 
of course overburden the tree. Much of the perfect symmetry 
with which leaves are arranged is therefore lost in the branches. 
Within the tree, also, there is an instinct of self-preservation 
which prompts it to produce buds on the wood wherever it has 
been injured. They are the adventitious buds, and eventually 
develop into the little lawless twigs which we so commonly 
see on many trees ; the poplars and willows especially. 

When a tree makes what is called a definite annual growth, 
the young shoots of the season burst boldly forth from the 
buds, in which, it must be remembered, their parts are already 
formed, and within a few weeks, or perhaps days, attain their 
whole growth for that year. They then bestir themselves to 
form and ripen their buds for the next season's similar and 
rapid growth. Other forms of trees make an indefinite annual 
growth. Throughout the summer their stems grow without 
ceasing, until touched perhaps by an early autumn frost. They 
take no time to form and ripen a terminal bud, and their upper 
axillary ones are produced so late in the season that they can- 
not properly mature. The growth of the next year, therefore, 
is mostly dependent on lower axillary buds which are better 
equipped. No main stem could possibly be continued in this way, 
and soon the trunk is broken up into branches, which in the 
same way divide and sub-divide into innumerable other branches 
and branchlets. The trunk of the American elm serves as a 



THE GROWTH OF THE TREES. w 

good example of this system ; and, in fact, all the rounded and 
spreading tops of trees are the outcome of this mode of growth. 

Following these general principles and with many variations 
in details, trees grow from their seeds and throw out from leaf- 
buds their branches. It is only by a close observation of them 
that we can begin to appreciate the fineness of their organism. 
They leave nothing to chance. Even in the seed we have seen 
something of their careful advance preparation, and also how 
when overtaken by it they are equally able to meet misfortune. 
It is to this wonderful readiness that we owe the sudden and 
luxurious burst of foliage in the spring. The buds that have 
been nurtured throughout the winter then await only the soft, 
warm touch of spring to open and lengthen their joints, that the 
unfolding leaves may be sufficiently separated from each other. 
Very little, if any, of the earliest vegetation comes directly from 
the seed. 

Trees are so often regarded simply as masses of foliage that 
much of the beauty and fragrance of their blossoms is lost by 
the unobserving. In the earlv spring many of them are laden 
with exquisite flowers, and all of the trees bloom. Their flowers 
grow from buds ; and buds that appear at the same places as do 
leaf-buds. They are always either terminal or axillary, and 
never occur where a branch might not have occurred. Scientists 
tell us that the flower is nothing more than a suddenly arrested 
branch which the plant, to fulfil certain purposes, has so 
transformed. 

When the flower-bud unfolds, its axis does not lengthen as 
does that of the branch ; but it remains almost as short as 
when in the bud. The leaves then, transformed into sepals 
and petals, remain closely together, and either are spirally ar- 
ranged after the manner of leaves, or they alternate in whorls. 
The stamens of a flower are generally regarded as modified 
leaves ; and a simple pistil is plainly a leaf with its margins so 
folded together as to form an enclosure, or the cavity of the 
ovary. The apex is extended into the style, while the edges of 



34 THE GROWTH OF THE TREES. 

the leaf that remain outward form the stigma. That the 
flower is a charming device for the purpose of producing fruit 
and seeds, we know well ; and even though it may not always 
be beautiful there is usually attached to it some peculiar interest. 

While the tree is making this visible growth above ground, 
we must not forget that under the soil its roots are busy branch- 
ing and extending themselves that they may hold firmly the 
tree in its upright position, and drain from the soil more nour- 
ishment to supply its increased growth. The simple root that 
first grows downward from the end of the embryo remains, in 
many instances, for a long time the main root, (Plate VI.) and 
from it sends off side branches ; more often, however, it soon 
divides up into branches that in their turn again branch. As 
has been mentioned, it is the fresh young roots that absorb the 
nourishment from the soil. To aid them in so doing their sur- 
faces are sometimes closely covered with root hairs. These 
are simply elongations of the surface, or cells that are pro- 
jected, and their thin coverings allow them greedily to imbibe 
moisture into their tube-like interiors. It is from these well- 
supplied young roots that the sap is drawn up to feed the 
leaves and growing parts of the tree. 

This upward rise of the sap from the roots to the leaves is a 
subject of much interest. It takes place principally through 
the wood cells. And yet each one of these cells is a closed and 
separate cavity ; they in no way open into each other as is gen- 
erally supposed. By what means, then, we may ask, does the 
sap pass through them. It is possible for it to do so because, 
although there are no holes in the young cells, there are thin 
places in their thick walls ; and the passage through is further 
facilitated by the thin place in one cell connecting with the thin 
place in the wall of the adjoining cell. That the leaves are 
able to draw the contents of these cells up to them from the 
roots, while seemingly most wonderful is by a natural law. 

We find that, whenever two fluids of different degrees of dens- 
ity are separated from each other by a membranous partition, 




PLATE VI. GERMINATING OAK, SHOWING MAIN ROOT. 
(35) 



36 THE GROWTH OF THE TREES. 

the heavier fluid will attract to itself the lighter one until 
they both become of the same degree of density. In the cells 
of the young roots there is living organic matter, mucilage and 
protoplasm, and the fluid is naturally denser than the liquid 
they attract from the soil. The flow is, therefore, necessarily 
into them. The leaves, however, throw off into the air as 
vapours a vast amount of the water they contain ; especially is 
this demand made in dry weather. In fact, they exhale more 
freely than any other part of the tree. The organic matter 
which then remains in them is, as will be readily seen, more 
dense than that of the stalks which have not given out their 
moisture so freely. The leaves, therefore, call on the stalks for 
an upward flow of the contents of their cells. In the same way 
the stalks call on the stems, and so on is the demand made 
until the watery fluid of the root-ends is reached and drawn up- 
ward to the leaves, or buds or any growing part of the tree. 

After the sap has been assimilated by these parts growth 
begins, and in their own mysterious way they shape themselves. 
Later the sap flows downward through the cambium layer, and 
is again sent to parts where the tree needs it most. 

The assimilation of the crude sap is done in the green part 
of the tree, and only is it accomplished when the brightest day- 
light or the rays of the sun are shining upon them. New tissue 
is then building, while useless matter is ejected. The tran- 
spiratory organs of the leaves, innumerable minute openings 
called stomata, are on their under surfaces. They open and 
close. Then, too, the carbonic acid gas and water that the 
tree has absorbed from the earth and air are digested and 
given out abundantly as oxygen gas. This is finally the grand 
purpose of the vegetable world ; to convert inorganic matter 
into that which is organic, or to produce the food that is nec- 
essary for all animal life. 



PLATE VII. GREAT-FLOWERED MAGNOLIA. Magnolia fcetida. 

COPYRIGHT 1900. BY FREDERICK A STOK ES COM PAN Y . 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



Trees Preferring to Grow Near Water: 
in Swamps and by Running Streams. 

Obscurity can ftcver hangover the swamps nor can the trail of 
a stream be hidden ; for guarding their borders are the trees, 
heavily laden perhaps with the moisture they have imbibed 
from the near water. They ceaselessly stir in the breezes and 
throw into the air their life-giving vapours and sweetness. 
Under their shade the wild, vagrant flowers live and die. 
They gild the streams borders with gold and line the swamps 
with crimson. When dimness touches them, the trees bestir 
themselves to carry the flower s seeds away, or they toss them 
in the water which floats them to another shore. 

Do the trees know the flowers will come again ; and does 
hope still whisper to them when their own leaves have fallen 
and the mirthful water is frozen to stillness ? 

GREAT-FLOWERED nAGNOLIA. BULL BAY. (Plate VII.) 

Magnolia fcetida. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Magnolia. Round-topped. 60-80 feet. North Carolina south- April, June. 

ward and westward. August, northward. 

Lower bark : brownish grey, with appressed scales about one inch in 
length. Branches : lighter in colour, thin, smooth. Leaves : simple ; alter- 
nate; entire ; with stout petioles; ovate, five to eight inches long and two to 
three inches broad; evergreen ; thick ; bright green above and shiny. The winter 
buds and petioles covered on the under side with a rusty looking tomentum. 
Flowers : cream-white ; very fragrant ; seven, eight or twelve inches in di- 
ameter; solitary and terminal at the ends of the branches. Sepals: petal-like. 
Petals: six, nine or twelve ; oval ; concave. Base of the receptacle and lower 
parts of the filaments bright purple. Fruit: large; ovate; rusty brown; 
pubescent; of many pods. Seeds: flattened on one "side; slightly triangular ; 
when released from the pods they hang by threads. 

When this tree, so severe and simple in the outline of its 



3 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 




Magnblia ftetida. 



shining foliage, throws out its blos- 
soms, it appears almost as though a 
great flock of something white and 
unearthly had alighted among its 
branches. And as they lean upon 
the warm, sunny air they exhale a per- 
fume that is no less mystifying. At 
least, some lasting impression must 
cling to those that see it in bloom 
for the first time. To others, how- 
ever, that have from childhood walked 
in the southern streets and gardens 
shaded by these trees, it is simply said : 
" the magnolias are in bloom." It quite 
suffices. Undoubtedly the tree is the 
most beautiful and ornamental one of America and it is to be 
regretted that while evergreen in the south it is only precari- 
ously hardy as far northward as Philadelphia. It then blooms 
as late in the season as early August. As it leaves the coast 
and travels inland, it seeks for its home the seclusion of the 
forests instead of the banks of rivers and swamps. On the 
bluffs of the Mississippi it is also found in a state of splendid 
development. 

Rose-beetles seek the flowers just as they are beginning to 
open and are frequently held prisoners beneath the three inner 
petals which vault over the stigmas. Here they find, in the 
early days of spring, a warm and fragrant shelter, and the 
honey that lies on the stigmas provides for them a continuous 
feast. When the sepals and petals fall they fly away, laden 
with pollen in search of another abode ; and so they regularly 
accomplish the fertilization of the tree. Self-fertilization is 
prevented from the fact that the stigmas mature before the 
anthers. 

The wood of the great-flowered magnolia is more valuable 
than that of any other one of the genus. It is of a strong and 




PLATE VII!. SMALL MAGNOLU. Magnolia Virginiana. 

WYBIiiHT, 1300. BY FREDERICK A. STCKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



ir 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 39 

fibrous nature. Although it is mostly used for fuel it is quite 
worthy of a place in cabinet work. As is true of all the 
magnolias, the juice of the tree is intensely bitter and aromatic. 
It has been used as a tonic. 

It is interesting to reflect that the beautiful Council-tree at 
Charleston, South Carolina, was a magnolia. According to 
tradition it was under its shade that on the twenty-first of 
pril, 1780, General Lincoln held a council with his officers 
nd many citizens of Charleston as to the advisability of 
retreating before the British. The decision was in the nega- 
tive and three weeks later the city was surrendered. Until 
1849 the magnolia was held in especial veneration by the 
inhabitants of Charleston. At that time its branches spread 
themselves over a space of more than two hundred square 
feet. It had then unfortunately passed into the possession of 
one who, being devoid of all sentiment, ruthlessly chopped it 
down for fire-wood. 



. 



SMALL MAGNOLIA. SWEET BAY. LAUREL HAG- 
NOLIA. SWAI1P SASSAFRAS. {Plate VIII.) 

Magnolia Virginiana. 



FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Magnolia. Slender. 50-70 feet. Eastern Mass. southward to May-A ugust. 

Florida, westward to Texas. 

Bark: light brown or greyish, covered with thin appressed scales. Branch- 
lets : bright green the first year, becoming reddish brown with age. Leaves : 
simple; alternate; entire; obovate; pointed, with distinct midrib; thick; 
dark green above and shiny, downy and whitish underneath. Flowers : white; 
fragrant ; two to three inches in diameter ; solitary and terminal at the ends of 
the branches. Calyx : of three sepals on the receptacle. Corolla : broader 
than high ; of six to nine rounded petals. Stamens * numerous. Pistils : 
numerous; arranged in the shape of a cone. Fruit : cone-like ; red, each pod 
with one or two scarlet seeds. 

It is only in the north that this exquisite tree is reduced to 
the condition of a shrub of from about four to twenty feet 
high. Its bloom, however, is quite as waxen and fragrant as 
when borne on the more stately tree of the south. Another 



4o 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 




Magnolia Virginiana. 



difference which is owing to their lo- 
cality is that in the north as soon 
as the leaves are touched by the 
early frost of November they fall to 
the ground, while in the south they 
remain on the tree to welcome the new 
and unsophisticated ones of the next 
year. Magnolia Virginiana is one of the 
very lovely features of the deep New 
Jersey swamps. Its wood is soft and of 
no great value, although throughout the 
southern states it is sometimes used for 
the making of small wooden utensils 
and broom handles. 



SOUR GUM. BLACK GUM. TUPELO. 

(Plate IX.) 

Nfssa sylvdtica. 



PEPPERRIDGE. 



FAMILY 

Dogivood. 



SHAPE 
Branches, horizontal. 



HEIGHT 

30-50 /eel. 



RANGE 
Southern Maine to 
Michigan and south- 
ward to Florida. 



TIME OF BLOOM 
April-June. 



Bark : grey ; rough ; much broken in small pieces. Leaves : simple ; alter- 
nate ; entire; with short petioles which are downy when young; ellipti- 
cal ; dark green above, lighter below ; thick ; the midrib slightly pubescent 
when young. Flowers: greenish; clustered at the end of an axillary pedun- 
cle. Staminate flowers : small ; numerous. Pistillate flowers : from three to 
fourteen and larger. Fruit : dark blue or nearly black ; about one half an 
inch long and enclosing an ovoid and slightly ridged stone ; acrid to the taste 
until touched by the frost. 

Although the sour gum tree is of frequent occurrence in the 
north, it seems to be much better known and loved throughout 
the south. It is there incidental in many amusing stories and 
anecdotes. In the north the tree is frequently mistaken 
for a beech as their spray and foliage are somewhat similar. 
Quite as early as August its leaves begin to turn a brilliant 
crimson which almost rivals that of the scarlet maple. The 
negroes of the south regard the tree with very tender affection 







Staminate flower. Fruit. 

PLATE IX. SOU R G U M . JVyssa sylvatica. 
(41) 



42 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 



and that the opossums climb it in search of its fruit is not 
unknown to them. 

De possum thought he kno' de world 

And he climb de old gum tree ; 
He neber saw what I can do 

When my surest gun's with me. 

In connection with the old plantation days of the south a 
story is told of the gum tree. Its wood is very hard and does 
not split readily, and it was therefore thought desirable on 
Christmas day to use one of its largest trunks as the back log 
of a great fire that was kindled on the hearth. As long as it 
burned no work was required to be done on the plantation. 
The negroes knew this custom and as soon as the sap had 
ceased to flow downward in the autumn they would cut a tree 
and sink it in the river bed. There it peacefully remained and 
absorbed water ; and they forgot its existence until shortly 
before Christmas. With much trepidation it was then taken 
up and presented as the one chosen to be the back log. In its 
saturated condition it naturally burned, when once ignited by 
the immense heat of the fire, for a long time. It sometimes 
smouldered for weeks ; and we may imagine with what innocent 
wonder it was watched by those enjoying the holiday. 

In Virginia the light yellow wood of the gum tree is used in 

ship building ; but as a rule it is 
not adapted to purposes where long 
lengths are needed. It is admirable 
for the making of pulleys and the 
hubs of wheels. 

Nyssa biflbra y or water tupelo, 
(Plate X.) is a very similar tree to 
the preceding species and was for- 
merly regarded as a mere variety. 
Its foliage and fruit are smaller and 
the stone that the drupe encloses is 
Nfssa bijibra. flattened and much more ridged than 







Pistillate fltwer. Fruit. 

PLATE X. WATER TUPELO. Nyssa bi flora. 
(43) 



44 TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

that of Nyssa sylvatica. Both are picturesque trees, especially 
in the autumn when their brilliant foliage blazes from the river's 
bank and they are hung with their dark blue fruit. 

BLACK ALDER. VIRGINIA WINTERBERRY. (Plate XL) 
Ilex verticilldta. 

FAMILY 8HAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Holly. Bushy y spreading. 6-2$Seet. Nova Scotia, westward^ May \ June. 

and to Florida. Fruit: Sept., Oct. 

A tall shrub. Branchlets : greyish, glabrous or pubescent. Leaves : about 
two inches long ; simple ; alternate ; with short petioles ; obovate or broadly 
lanceolate ; usually pointed at both ends ; coarsely serrate; dark green above 
and glabrous ; paler below and pubescent; thick, not very shiny. Flowers: 
white ; six to eight parted ; clustered thickly in the axils. Drupes : brilliant red 
and appearing verticillate in manner of growth. 

In what is called the dreary season of the year, long after 
the time when its leaves have turned black and fallen, there is 
something particularly enchanting about this coarse shrub. 
Standing out amid the misty greyness that prevails and against 
perhaps the rich brown glow of some distant wood its lively 
coloured berries give a touch of hopefulness to the landscape. 
In fact the brightness of the twigs of various shrubs adds gleams 
of colour to a winter scene that are not dreamt of by the un- 
observing. 

In early summer its blossoms shine clear and bright, but they 
are modest, retiring little things and do not claim the same 
attention as do the berries. They unfold with those of the 
common elder, its relative the withe-rod or viburum nudum and 
the lovely small magnolia. By them the swamps and low 
grounds are made gay. 

WILD YELLOW PLUM. WILD RED PLUM. 

CANADA PLUM. (Plate XII.) 

Primus Americana. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Plum. Slender ; spreading. 8-35 feet. Canada southward to April, May, 

Florida and westward Fruit: Aug.,-Oct. 
to Colorado. 

Bark: bronze-green; smooth; thick. Branches: thorny. Leaves: simple; 
alternate ; with smooth, reddish petioles ; oval or obovate, with pointed 




PLATE XI. BLACK ALDER. Ilex verticil I at a. 



COPYRIGHT, '900, BY FREDERICK A. S10KESCOMP 




Section of flower. Fruit \ laid open. 

PLATE XII. WILD YELLOW PLUM. Prunus Americana. 
(45) 




*6 TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

apex and pointed or rounded base ; thin ; netted-veined ; sharply and doubly or 
singly serrate ; pubescent beneath in the angles of ribs and becoming smooth 
at maturity. Flowers : white ; growing in umbel-like clusters from separate 
lateral buds and usually preceding the leaves. Fruit : a dull orange or crim- 
son drupe; round and containing a flattened stone with sharply winged edges ; 
glabrous ; edible with a pleasant flavour. The skin acrid and tough. 

As the specific name of this tree im- 
plies it is a native of America. In its 
wild state it grows along the borders of 
streams and sometimes seeks the shelter 
of a light strip of woodland. Occasion- 
ally it is planted ; but it is much better to 
use it as a stock upon which to graft some 
one of the domestic species of plums. For 
this purpose its hardiness and other good 
qualities make it suitable and many excellent 
results have thus been obtained. The chief 
charm of the tree is the colour of its ripe fruit. There is an 
almost transparent brightness about it which in effect is most 
artistic. At the season of its ripening housewives were for- 
merly very much on the alert when they sought the fruit and 
made it into preserves. 

CHOKE CHERRY. (Plate CXLVI) 
Primus Virginiana. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Plum. Bushy y spreading. 2-i$feet. New England southward April, May. 

to Georgia and westward Fruit: July, A ug. 
to Colorado. 

Bark: dark grey. Leaves: simple; alternate; oval; pointed; finely and 
sharply serrate ; thin. Flowers: white; growing compactly in a short, close 
raceme. Calyx : tubular; bell-shaped ; flve-lobed. Corolla : with five very small 
petals. Stamens : numerous. Pistil : one. Fruit : A bright red cherry which 
turns later to dark crimson. The stone and kernel are flavoured with and 
contain prussic acid. 

By the side of the streams and rivers and often along road- 
sides and thickets from April until late in August the attention 
of the passer by is caught by either the bloom or the fruit of the 
choke-cherry. It is always a shrub, and has a sprightly, re- 
freshing aspect. Little birds are seen alighting, for a moment, 




PLATE XIM. BUTTONWOOD. Plat anus occidentalism 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 47 

on its branches and then darting in and out as though en- 
couraging it not to lose a gleam of sunshine or the softest mur- 
mur from the stream. The long, cylindrical bunches of fleecy 
blossoms are very pretty, but they quite pale before the exqui- 
site fruit which shows many shades of colour before settling 
down to the dark crimson or, rarely, yellow of ripeness. It pro- 
vides, in fact, a much better feast for the eye than it does for 
the palate, and although the experience of tasting is not harmful, 
it is one that is not apt to be soon repeated. 

BUTTON-WOOD. PLANE-TREE. BUTTON-BALL TREE. 

{Plate XIII.) 

Plat anus occidentdlis. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Plane-tree. 


Wide spreading* 


60-190 feet \ 


Southern Maine south- 


May. 




broad. 


or higher. 


ward and westward. 





Outer bark : dark brown; thin; peeling off freely and showing the silver white 
and polished inner bark ; often presenting a mottled appearance. Leaf-buds: 
axillary and concealed throughout the summer and winter under the hollow 
base of the leaf petioles and being thus protected until the next spring. Stipules: 
like sheaths. Leaves ; simple ; alternate ; with downy petioles ; orbicular, with 
taper-pointed apex and squared or cordate base. The edge coarsely toothed or 
often three to five-lobed ; the sinuses between them rounded. The leaves and 
petioles become smooth at maturity. Fiotuers : small, in round heads; monoe- 
cious. Fruit: growing closely in solitary round balls which hang from the ends 
of lony wiry peduncles. They become dry and remain on the branches until 
well on into the winter, or until their seeds are scattered by the wind. 

About this striking tree there is an almost matchless dignity, 
and its bearing, so different from that of any other, has caused 
it to be very generally known. On all sides we hear it said, 
" that is a sycamore." Unfortunately this name is, although in 
error, most commonly used. We should, however, accustom 
ourselves to calling it by another of its English names. The 
tree at times grows to a height unrivalled by any of the 
Northeastern American forests, and it lives to be very old. An 
unusual feature about it is the way in which the outer bark 
peels off as the season advances and displays the polished 
inner bark. As it then raises these white almost spotless 
branches upward, it seems as though the tree in mute elo- 



4 8 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 



quence proclaims that it 
has suffered all things. It 
has braved the fierceness 
of tempests and watched 
the struggling of many 
generations. But it is not 
dismayed ; and when, espe- 
cially in the moonlight, its 
shimmering branches are 
seen towering above other 
things they testify that it 
has triumphed. It is most 
pathetic to see the tree 
W when it has at last suc- 
cumbed and is about to die. 
Stripped of its foliage and 
its swinging balls of fruit, 
it appears a gaunt figure 
upon the landscape. 
The wood is reddish brown 
and has a most beautiful grain. It is used for the interior 
finish of houses although it is quite prone to crack. The 
beautiful tree is also largely made into tobacco boxes. 

FicusSycomorus, sycamore, the tree to which the name is prop- 
erly applied, is a native of Egypt and Syria. It is of medium 
size, very bushy and is closely allied to the fig tree. Its fruit 
is much eaten, and at one time its wood was used for the coffins 
of mummies. 




Platdnus occidentalis. 



RIVER BIRCH. RED BIRCH. {Plate XIV.) 

Bdtula nigra. 



FAMILY 
Birch. 



SHAPE 
Slender^ drooping. 



HEIGHT RANGE 

yy-do/eet. Mass. south-ward and 
westward to Minn. 



TIME OF BLOOM 

Aprils May. 



Bark : reddish brown ; dotted and peeling, not as the white birches but 
becoming loose and hanging in thin light brown sheets. Leaves: simple; alter- 
nate ; often two together; with short and pubescent petioles; ovate, fre- 







Scale c/cone. 

PLATE XIV. RIVER BIRCH. Betula nigra. 
(49) 



5 o TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

quently pointed at both ends; unequally and rather doubly serrate with 
entire base ; green above, whitish and pubescent underneath. Flowers: grow- 
ing in long, downy catkins. Fruit : very small ; broadly-winged ; pubescent at 
the base. 

Not until it reaches the lower part of New York is this birch 
very commonly seen, and from there it travels southward as 
though in search of a still warmer climate. None other of the 
birches is found in the south, and therefore it seems strange 
that this one should reach its best development south of Balti- 
more. The tree is very graceful, and when seen along the 
banks of rivers and lakes its drooping branches appear as 
though they were longing to stretch down and drink of the cool 
water. They sometimes hang nearly to the ground. In the 
autumn its foliage turns a bright yellow. This is the birch 
from the twigs of which are made brooms. 



SPECKLED ALDER. HOARY ALDER. 

Alnus incdna. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Birch. Bushy , spreading. , Z-io/eet. Pennsylvania northivard. April. 

Bark : green ; shiny. Twigs : glabrous. Leaves : simple ; alternate ; with 
short petioles ; broadly ovate, pointed at the apex and squared or rounded 
at the base ; irregularly and finely serrate or sometimes coarsely toothed ; 
the veins brownish and prominent on the under side ; pale dull green above, 
whitish and very downy below ; with age becoming smoother. Flowers : reddish 
brown ; growing in catkins from naked buds and appearing some time before 
the leaves. Staminate catkins about three inches long ; pistillate ones thick 
and shorter. Nut: orbicular. 

How eager the alders are to greet the spring. It seems as 
though they could hardly wait for the winter to be gone. 
When there is not a flower astir and the air is still full of the 
scent of dried leaves, they and the white maples begin to bloom. 
A point of interest about their pretty catkins is that while they 
are formed one summer they do not develop until the next 
season. Throughout the winter they have remained naked on 
the trees. In earliest spring therefore they are quite ready 
with their seeds and toss them about in the spirit of unconcern 




Flowering branch. 

PLATE XV. SMOOTH ALDER. Alnus rugosa. 
(50 



$2 TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

and lavishness which it sometimes pleases Nature to display. 
They are then picked up by the wind or carried along with the 
stream until they find some fitting niche to rest in, and to grow. 
The quaint little cones are often seen in the autumn hanging 
on the branches together with the young catkins. Although 
usually a shrub, the speckled alder sometimes becomes a small 
tree. 

A. rugbsa, smooth alder, [Plate XV.) is also a shrub or small 
tree which ranges in height from five to twenty-five or forty feet 
high. That its obovate leaves are green and rather smooth 
on both sides will serve as a means to distinguish it from Alnus 
incana. Its young twigs are also slightly pubescent. Its fa- 
vorite home is along the borders of streams where it forms 
close thickets. It is found also on moist hillsides. 

A11ERICAN HORNBEAH. WATER BEECH. BLUE 

BEECH. IRONWOOD. {Plate XVI.) 

Carplnus Caroliniatia. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Birch. Head open; 10-40 feet, New Brunswick to Aprils May. 

branches spreading, higher southward. Minnesota^ south- Fruit: Aug.^ Sept. 

ward to Florida 
and Texas. 

Trunk and branches ; ridged. Bark: smooth; greyish black, and irregularly 
and vertically lined with stripes of dull grey. Branchlets : slender ; when 
young, brownish purple, terminating in green-bronze ; those that are older, with 
an ashy hue. Leaves; simple; alternate; with short, slender petioles; 
ovate-lanceolate, or oblong, with pointed apex and rounded or slightly cordate 
base ; sharply and unevenly serrate ; ribs straight; pubescent ; especially so in 
their angles ; above smooth. Fruit : growing in a green, elongated, drooping 
cluster. The small nuts growing singly at the base of two opposite, halberd- 
shaped, three-lobed bracts. 

This enchanting little tree or shrub is sometimes found grow- 
ing in a one-sided fashion which allows its branches to droop 
over a stream. As they do so the flower or fruit clusters hang 
at right angles to the boughs ; so they are thrown into prom- 
inence and give a light effect to the foliage. The bracts of the 
clusters are much more strongly tinted with yellow than are the 
dark green leaves. A young spray of the tree is very beauti- 




Nuts and bracts. 

PLATE XVI AM E R I CAN H ORN BE AM . Carpinus Caroliniana. 
(53) 



54 TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

ful, and we may fancy it would make a bewitching decoration 
for the white, fleecy gown of some woodland fairy. 

The tree is slow of growth, and as the name ironwood implies, 
its wood is very strong and compact. It is well adapted to the 
making of farming implements, such as the teeth in rakes and 
other similar articles where durability is required. 

BLACK WILLOW. (Plate XVII.) 
Salix nigra. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TfME OF BLOOM 

Willow. Head open, irregular; 15-35 feet. New Brunswick south- April, May. 

branches, stout, ward and westward to 
upright. California. 

Bark : Blackish or light brown ; rough ; flaky. Branches : yellowish brown ; 
slender; brittle at the base. Stipules: inclined to vary. Leaves: simple; 
alternate ; about two inches long, with short petioles ; narrowly lanceolate, 
pointed at both ends or wedge-shaped at the base ; finely and sharply serrate 
or entire ; pubescent, and later becoming smooth excepting along the midrib ; 
the under side paler than the light green upper surface. Flowers : growing in 
catkins and terminal at the end of the season's branches. Staminate ones with 
from three to five stamens. Pistillate ones scaly. 

A particular charm and freshness seems to cluster around the 
willows ; and although about one hundred and sixty species of 
them are recognised by botanists, there runs so strong a 
family resemblance through them all that it would be difficult 
to confuse any one of them with another genus. By their gen- 
eral aspect and leaves many of the species can be known. 
The study of the differences in their flowers is one that requires 
minute observation and carefulness. Although each one of the 
willows has its own habitat, the greater number of them are 
fond of water and seek the river's edge. Here they have their 
own work to do in holding the soil together and often forming 
strong breastworks against the wind. They abundantly scatter 
their seeds, and detached twigs and branches strike root with 
great facility. In low places and the adjoining meadows their 
trail can often be followed by numerous ones that have sprung 
up and whose ancestors live on the river's bank. Salix nigra, 
however, is seldom found growing away from water. Its wood 




Rife and unripe pistillate flowers. 



Stamens. Pistil* 



PLATE XVII. BLACK WILLOW. Salix nigra. 
(55) 



56 TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

is soft and weak and from the bark a tonic is extracted that has 
considerable efficacy in the curing of fevers. 

The willows that are native to America are mostly small and 
do not always become arborescent, many of them being shrubs. 
Of them, Salix nigra is the most conspicuous. The introduced 
ones are large and generally fine trees. 

SCYTHE-LEAVED WILLOW. 

Salix nigra falcdta. 

TIME OF BLOOM 
April y May. 

Bark ; dark grey; rough. Leaves : simple ; alternate ; with short petioles, 
and two circular leaf-like and serrate stipules at their bases ; linear or scythe- 
shaped; pointed at both ends or having the base slightly rounded ; finely 
serrate ; green on both sides ; glabrous above and with soft, silky hairs un- 
derneath when young. 

In its best state of development the scythe-leaved willow is a 
small tree, and quite as often it occurs as a shrub. Its leaves 
are characteristic. 

WESTERN BLACK WILLOW. PEACH-LEAVED 

WILLOW. ALMOND WILLOW. {Plate XVIII.) 

Salix amygdaloldes. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


Willow. 


Irregular; branches 


$/!' 


Massachusetts to 




stout. 




Florida. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Willow. 


Trunk inclining; 

tranches, curving 

upward. 


tys/*et. 


New York to Ohio, west' 

ward to Missouri and 

New Mexico. 


April, May. 



Bark: brownish red; scaly. Stipules: reniform, encircling the stem; re- 
motely serrate and falling early. Leaves : simple; alternate; with long slender 
petioles; broadly lanceolate, with pointed apex and pointed or narrowed base; 
sharply and evenly serrate ; dark green above and smooth at maturity, paler 
and slightly glaucous below. Flowers: growing in long, cylindrical and 
pubescent catkins and terminal at the end of leafy branches. Staminate ones 
with from five to nine stamens and filaments that are hairy at the base. 
Pistillate ones with yellow scales. 

Most commonly this rather small tree is seen growing along 
the banks of streams from Ohio to Missouri. It has also a 
more northern range from Quebec to British Columbia and 
thrives well about the Great Lakes. It is a native of America. 




PLATE XV 1 1 1 . WESTERN BLACK WILL W. Salix amygdaloides. 



copyright, i9oo, by Frederick a. stokes company. 

PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



: 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 57 

The accompanying illustration shows the beauty of the pistillate 
catkins at maturity. The stalks of their capsules have length* 
ened, and they are bursting that the cotton-tufted seeds may 
escape. 

SHINING WILLOW. AMERICAN BAY WILLOW. 

GLOSSY BROAD-LEAVED WILLOW. (Plate XIX.) 

Salix liicida. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Willow. Regular \ bushy: \%-iofeet* New England to N. J. and April, May. 

branches^ erect. Kentucky and westward. 

Bark: dark brown ; smooth, or slightly scaly. Branchlets : yellowish or 
green; smooth; polished. Leaf-buds ; yellowish ; ovate ; smooth. Stipules : 
mostly persistent; small; oblong or cordate; falling late in the season. 
Leaves: simple ; alternate; with short, stout petioles, at most, half an inch 
long ; elliptical or lanceolate, with sharp-pointed apex and narrowed or slightly 
rounded base; finely and sharply serrate; dark green above, lighter below; 
smooth; shiny on both sides; the midrib whitish and distinct. Catkins: 
short, with leafy bracts and terminating a sparingly leafy branch. Staminate 
ones : fluffy, with five or more stamens in each flower. Pistillate ones : long ; 
dense. 

We have no more beautiful willow shrub than Salix lucida. 
It is a native species. In the swamps or along the borders of 
streams it appears to attract and hold the sunshine which makes 

gay shimmering upon its glossy leaves. 

About the catkins of the willows, they are borne on different 
plants ; and in the springtime we see many sorts of insects 
darting in and out among them. They are busy seeking honey 
and also performing the service of cross-fertilization. That so 
many flowers grow in one inflorescence is a fact which must 
always appeal to the sagacious insect. From twenty-five to 
one hundred pods have been counted in a willow catkin. He 
can therefore suck the honey and carry off the pollen with 
much greater rapidity than he can when flowers are borne 
singly. To save time, it must be remembered, is a most impor- 
tant matter, for the more flowers that can be fertilized the 
better it is for the tree. When the pollen is ripe it should then 
be carried to another flower, otherwise it is liable to be injured 




Staminate branch. 



Pistil. Stamens, 

PLATE XIX. SHINING WILLOW. Salix lucida. 
(58) 







TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 59 

by rains or in many other ways. The fertile catkins can be 
easily distinguished. They are generally the short, green ones 
that develop soon after the sterile ones have been stripped of 
their golden pollen. 

The seeds of the willows are very small. Amid the tufts of 
cotton-like hairs which surround them at the base it is almost 
with difficulty that they are detected. When the pods open 
their beaks to release them, the slightest breeze is able to carry 
them aloft, and the air is often apparently filled with their lint. 
Of the millions that are tossed about very few germinate and 
become shrubs of trees. Nature is far seeing and, knowing the 
many imminent perils of their existence, strews with a lavish 
land. 

BEBB'S WILLOW. LONG-BEAKED WILLOW. OCHRE- 
FLOWERED WILLOW. (Plate XX.) 

Salix Bebbiana. 



AMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Willow. Bushy; branches^ 4-18 or 25 feet. Hudson Bay to New Jersey^ A/rt'l, May. 
erect. northward and westward. 

Bark: dark green or reddish. Branches: yellowish. Twigs: reddish 
brown ; pubescent when young. Stipules : semi-cordate. Leaves : simple ; 
alternate ; elliptical or oblong-lanceolate, tapering into a point or blunt at 
the apex and rounded or wedge-shaped at the base. Edge : variable ; remotely 
toothed ; wavy ; serrate or entire. Dull olive-green and smooth above, pale 
bluish green and covered with silky hairs underneath, becoming glabrous ; thin. 
Flowers : growing in sessile catkins and appearing with the leaves. Staminate 
catkins: long; obovate ; pale yellow at maturity. Pistillate catkins: rather 
short and with flowers growing loosely in them. 

In earliest spring, almost as soon as the sap has begun to 
flow under the bark of this willow, its catkins hasten to 
develop and glisten in contrast to the bareness of the earth. 
The leaves do not fully unfold until some time later. Although 
the flowers in these strange little catkins have no beautifully- 
coloured envelopes, the rich yellow anthers of the staminate 
blossoms can hardly fail to attract the attention. Thousands 
of bees are seen buzzing about them. This species is one that 
is a native of America, and it occurs either as a shrub or as a 




Staminatc branch. 



Stamens. Pistil. 



PLATE XX. BEBB'S WILLOW. Salix Bebbzana. 
(60) 




PLATE XXI. SILKY WILLOW. Salix sericea. 
(61) 



62 TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

small tree. It establishes itself along the borders of woods and 
often in dry soil as well as remains faithfully by the side of 
streams. 

SILKY WILLOW. {Plate XXI) 

Saltx sericea. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Willow. 


Bushy, irregular. 


5-12 feet. 


Maine southward to 
Virginia. 


May. 



Twigs: reddish purple; slender. Stipules: narrow; deciduous. Leaves: 
simple ; alternate, with petioles three to four inches long ; lanceolate, with 
taper-pointed apex and pointed or rounded base ; serrate ; extremely soft and 
silky when young. As the leaves dry they turn dark brown or black. Flow- 
ers ; growing in long sessile catkins with leafy bracts at their bases. 

Surely there is an inspiration to be found in the willow 
shrubs as they unfold the earliest signs of spring. About them 
there is a golden halo as soon as the sap begins to flow. The 
little buds expand so radiantly, and the shy catkins peep out 
and grow longer with every touch of warm, sunny air. There 
is something so fresh and lively about them. They are eager 
to cast off every sign of deadness. Along the streams and by 
the borders of swamps the silky willow seems to cling with a 
tender affection. The shrub is a native of America. 



WEEPING WILLOW. RING WILLOW. (Plate XXII) 

Salix Babylonica. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Willow. Branches, pendulous. 30-60 feet. In cultivation. April, May. 

Bark: grey; rough. Twigs : greenish; long; drooping ; supple; bitter to the 
taste. Leaves: simple; alternate; linear-lanceolate; pointed at both ends; 
sharply serrate all around ; when young slightly pubescent on the under side. 
Flowers : dioecious; growing in long, loose catkins with entire scales and ter- 
minal at the end of short, leafy and lateral branches. 

When the spring winds skimmer gaily 

Along the mirthful stream, 
Then the stately, reverend willow 

Wears a gown of tender green. 




PLATE XXII. WEEPING WILLOW. Salix Babylonica, 
(63) 



6 4 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 



s*T. 



And throughout the happy summer 

It breathes as oft before 
For its heart is grave and solemn 

The sweetest tales of yore. 

'Till in tune with winter's sorrow 

It moans a plaintive cry, 
And its boughs are bent with weeping 

That calms the passer-by. 

There is f perhaps, no other tree about which more sentiment 
clusters than the weeping willow. It 
is not like a flower that remains on the 
earth only long enough to accomplish its 
purpose of reproduction ; it lives to cast 
its shade upon many generations. When 
it has attained a great age and grown to a 
large size there is a gravity about it 
which is most impressive. The idea of 
its weeping and its specific name have, 
it is said, been suggested by the lamen- 
tation of the Hebrews in Psalm cxxxvii, 
although Populus Euphratica is also be- 
lieved to be the Garab-tree of the Arabs, 




SMix Babyldnica. 



and the weeping willow of the Psalmist. 

" By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, yea, we wept, when we remem- 
bered Zion. 

We hanged our harps upon the willows in the midst thereof." 

Thoreau, however, who is always cheerful, says of the tree : 
" It may droop it is so lithe and supple but it never weeps. 
It droops not to represent David's tears, but rather to snatch 
the crown from Alexander's head." 

The story of its introduction into Europe and America from 
the Orient is an interesting one. Shortly after Alexander Pope 
had built his villa at Twickenham on the Thames, he received 
from a friend in Smyrna a drum of figs. Within it there also 
was a small twig which excited the poet's curiosity. He stuck 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 65 

it in the ground by the river's bank. It rooted, and soon grew 
to be the delight of Pope and his friends. Were it still stand- 
ing it would be regarded with peculiar interest ; for it was the 
ancestor of all those that have since lived in Europe and Amer- 
ica. In 1775 a young British officer who went to Boston took 
with him, carefully wrapped in oiled silk, a twig from Pope's 
willow. His expectations of settling peacefully in the new 
world were not as speedily fulfilled as he had anticipated, and 
so he presented the twig to Mr. Custis, the step-son of General 
Washington, who planted it near his home at Abingdon, Vir- 
ginia. There it took kindly to the soil and grew vigourously. 
It was a child of Pope's willow, and the first one to strike 
root in America. Later, in 1790, General Gates took a twig 
from the tree and planted it at the entrance to the farm he 
had bought on Manhattan Island. It also grew to a consider- 
able size, and for many years was familiarly known as Gates' 
weeping willow. The entrance to the farm where it stood is 
now Third avenue and Twenty-second street. 

It is believed that the staminate trees have never been intro- 
duced into this country, and the willow is, therefore, not able 
to reproduce itself by seed. The twigs of S. Babylonica have 
been used as divining rods, and Herodotus mentions that the 
Scythians found them excellent for this purpose. 

S. Babylonica annularis, hoop willow, is known by the pecu- 
liarity of its leaves. They curve and recurve into rings. 

WHITE WILLOW. HUNTINGTON WILLOW. 

Salix alba. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Willow. Thick set, branches, 50-90 feet. Introduced, New York April, May. 
ascending. and Penn . 

Bark: grey; rough. Twigs: olive-green, not yellowish; brittle. Stipules'. 
lanceolate ; deciduous. Leaves : simple ; alternate ; with very short peti- 
oles ; lanceolate to linear, tapering at both ends ; sharply serrate ; pubescent on 
both surfaces, the lower one retaining its white, velvety hairs even when ma- 
ture. Catkins : growing at the end of the season's short, leafy shoots. 

Although generally familiar and common throughout a con- 



66 TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

siderable part of the country, S. alba is one of the introduced 
willows that have escaped from cultivation. Its growth is free 
and rapid ; as though it were quite independent of all care 
and attention. Of the species there are several varieties, and it 
is not always a simple matter to tell them from each other. 
The fact that its own twigs are not yellowish will serve in one 
instance to distinguish it from S. dlba vitelhna, yellow willow, or 
golden osier. 

S. dlba ccerhlea has olive coloured twigs, and its leaves are of 
a bluish green hue. 

S. alba arg/ntea, as the name implies, has foliage that is very 
silvery. This is a particularly beautiful feature of the tree, and 
when a strong breeze is seen playing through it the under sur- 
faces of the leaves appear like flashes of light through the 
green. 

YELLOW WILLOW. GOLDEN OSIER. {Plate XXIII) 

Salix dlba vitelllna. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Willow. Erect, thick; spreading 30-40 feet. Introduced, general May. 

broadly. in U. S. 

Twigs: yellowish green or reddish; smooth; brittle at the base. Leaves: 
simple; alternate; lanceolate; pointed at both ends ; when very young often 
blunt or rounded at the apex; sharply serrate; pubescent, the silky white hairs 
appearing on the upper surface of the leaf as well as underneath. This is es- 
pecially so when young. Catkins : long; slender. 

Early in the spring especially, a golden glow from this wil- 
low appears to lighten the whole of its surrounding atmos- 
phere. It is a tree very common in America, perhaps the most 
so of any one of the family. Even about old houses it is found, 
and it grows abundantly in low places. 

For its commercial value the golden osier has been exten- 
sively planted in France, where it principally supplies the mar- 
ket with hoops, and it is also exported by the French to Great 
Britain and other countries. 




Staminate 

branch. 



PLATE XXIII. YELLOW WILLOW. Salix alba vitellma. 
(67) 



68 TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

BRITTLE WILLOW. CRACK WILLOW. {Plate XXIV) 
Salix frdgilis. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOO 


Willpw. 


Head, bushy, 
irregular. 


60-80 feet. 


Introduced, Mass. to N. J. 
and Penn. 


April, May. 



Bark: grey; slightly rough. Branches: greenish, tinged with red; smooth; 
very brittle at the base, the most so of any species with this characteristic. 
Leaves : simple ; alternate, with smooth petioles with two wart-like extuber- 
ances near the base of the leaf; lanceolate; taper-pointed at both ends; 
unevenly and sharply serrate, the teeth somewhat incurved ; smooth and dark 
green above, whitish below and only slightly downy, even when young. 
Flowers : growing in catkins at the ends of the season's leafy shoots. Stami- 
nate catkins : shorter than the long, loose pistillate ones. 

Among the willows, Salix fragilis has its distinct place, and 
it is regarded as a valuable tree. From its withes much of 
the basket work with which we are so familiar is made, and 
the industry in Europe, where it is generally distributed, is a 
large one. The timber that it yields is fine and of a rich 
salmon colour. From the old plants its twigs break away and 
grow into new ones with astonishing facility. It is probably in 
this way that it has escaped so widely from cultivation. It 
has also many varieties and hybridizes well with other species. 

An amusing story is told of a country school mistress who 
prided herself on her knowledge of the family of willows. One 
day she told a young lad to fetch her a twig with which she 
might flog him. He sought one of a near-by willow and, 
being wise in his generation, made slight circular incisions all 
along the twig with his ever-ready pen-knife. When he 
returned, he calmly held out his hand to the mistress. She 
raised the twig ; but before the first blow was fairly adminis- 
tered, it had flown in innumerable pieces all over the room. 
" It is the brittle willow," said she with an air of wisdom to 
the rest of the pupils. 



Staminate branch. 




Pistillate branch at 
maturity. 



Pistillate 
branch. 



PLATE XXIV. BRITTLE WILLOW. Salix fragilis. 
(69) 



7 o 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 



DOWNY POPLAR. RIVER COTTONWOOD. 
COTTONWOOD. {Plate XX V.) 
Pdpulus heterophylla. 

SHAPE HEIGHT 

4,c-%ofeet. 



FAMILY 

Willow. Head narrow, round- 

topped; branches, ir- 
regular. 



RANGE 

Southern Conn. 

southward and 

westward. 



SWAMP 



TIME OF BLOOM 
April, May. 



Bark: reddish brown ; rough; and broken into long, narrow plates. 
Leaves: simple; alternate, with long, round petioles; rounded ovate, with 
blunt apex and cordate base, the lobes of the base often overlapping the leaf- 
stem ; serrate, with obtuse and incurved teeth. When young the leaves are 
covered with a white wool which falls as the leaves mature ; the veins and 
petioles, however, always retain traces of the down. Staminate catkins : very 
large; dense; drooping. Pistillate ones : raceme-like; loose. 

It almost seems as though a little innate stubbornness were 
displayed by this tree in the persistent 
bluntness of its leaf. It also clings 
with much tenacity to the soft down 
of its early youth. That it has these 
decisive characteristics, however, af- 
fords us a good means of its identi- 
fication. When its tiny seed is caught 
on its upward sail in the air, and exam- 
ined, it is found to be snugly placed 
within a mass of silvery, white hairs 
which at their bases are tinged with 
orange-yellow. This touch of colour 
and the beauty of the design for its 
purpose in a thing so small is only 
another instance of the fineness of Nature's conceptions. 
In the northern Atlantic states the tree is local and rare. Its 
wood is closely-grained, but soft and not durable. 




Pdpulus heterophylla. 



BALSAM POPLAR. TACAMAHAC. 

Pdpulus balsamifera. 



FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT 

Willow. Erect; narrow, open 60-80-100 feet. 



RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Northward and April. 

westward. Fruit: May, June. 

Bark: grey, tinged with red ; ridged; bitter. Branches: smooth, with wart- 
like excrescences. Leaf-buds ; large ; covered with a yellow, resinous gum 




Staminate and 
pistillate catkin. 



Bursting catkin. 



PLATE XXV. DOWNY POPLAR. Populus heterophylla. 
(7i) 



72 TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

which is scented like balsam. Leaves: simple; alternate; ovate-lanceolate; 
pointed at the apex and rounded or sub-cordate at the base; three-ribbed,* 
finely serrate; bright green and shiny above, rather whitish below; glabrous. 
Flowers : dioecious ; growing in drooping catkins, and appearing some time 
before the leaves. Stamens : numerous. Scales of the pistillate flowers 
recurved at the apex. 

It must be a dull heart that is not stirred by the sight of this 
noble tree. Against the intense blue of a summer's sky its 
great size and stately trunk make it indeed a noteworthy 
object. It grows along the borders of streams and lakes and 
inhabits bottom lands that have been inundated. Occasionally 
it is found in dry soil. The fishermen of the Great Lakes know 
the tree well. They seek the outer bark from the base of 
old trees and use it as they would cork to float their nets. 
The wood of the tree is brown and soft. It is made into pails, 
tobacco boxes and also paper pulp. 

BALH OF GILEAD. HEART-LEAVED BALSAM 

POPLAR. {Plate XX VI.) 

Pdpulus cdndicans. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Willow. 


Head, broad, open; 
branches, spreading. 


40-50 feet. 


In cultivation. 


April. 



Bark: greenish grey, the branches often darkly spotted. Leaf-buds: large; 
fragrant. Leaves: simple ; alternate, with petioles that are almost round and 
more or less hairy; broadly-ovate, or cordate, pointed at the apex and heart- 
shaped at the base; coarsely serrate; netted-veined; the margins outlined by 
fine white hairs. Bright green above; whitish below; pubescent along the 
ribs and veins. Flowers : growing in catkins, similar to those of the preced- 
ing species. 

This beautiful tree with its gracefully-shaped and abundant 
foliage is frequently planted about dwellings and along drives. 
It has in fact quite abandoned the forests and no longer luxuri- 
ates in a state of wildness. Professor L. H. Bailey, however, 
tells us that it is indigenous in Michigan and that there, it is 
said, groves of it existed when the country was first settled. 
Afterwards they were cut down to supply lumber. It is dis- 
tinguished from the balsam poplar, of which it has been re- 




PLATE XXVI. BALM OF GILEAD. Populus candle 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 




PLATE XXVII. COTTONWOOD. Populus deltoides. 
(73) 



74 TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

garded as a variety, by the width of its leaves with their cor- 
date bases and ciliate margins and by their pubescence. 

The seeds have wonderfully fine hairs which envelop the 
fruit with thick masses of soft, snow-white cotton. The illus- 
tration shows the pistillate catkins at maturity. Then the seeds 
become detached from their capsules and are wafted by the 
breezes to great distances from the trees. 

COTTONWOOD. RIVER POPLAR. CAROLINA POPLAR. 

NECKLACE POPLAR. {Plate XXVII) 

Populus deltoldes. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Willow. Symmetrical, open 80-150 feet. Quebec westward and April. 

head. southward to N. y., Fla. Fruit: Junt. 
and New Mexico. 

Bark : granite-grey ; smooth when young but becoming rough and furrowed 
with age and breaking off in short, flaky pieces. Branchlets : greenish. Leaf- 
buds : glutinous, with a substance like balsam. Leaves: simple; alternate, 
with stout petioles which are flattened sidewise ; broadly-ovate, with taper- 
pointed apex and squared or slightly cordate base. Irregularly and coarsely 
serrate, with incurved teeth ; when young, sticky and fragrant like balsam ; 
occasionally coarsely pubescent underneath ; the margins fringed ; at maturity 
bright green, smooth and glossy above, paler below; ribs whitish on both 
sides; thick. Flowers: dioecious; growing in catkins, and appearing before 
the leaves; the fertile ones sometimes a foot long; their scales cut-fringed. 
Sterile calkins: growing on stout stems; dense. Seeds : covered with a whit- 
ish or rusty coloured substance. 

There is to-day standing in Washington Hollow, Dutchess 
county, New York, a cotton-wood tree the trunk of which 
measures fifteen feet, two and a half inches in circumference. 
The soft grey of its bark and its lustrous restless foliage form 
an imposing spectacle against the sky. By those that live near 
its shade its slightest movements are watched with interest. 
Owing to the softness of its wood large branches are apt to 
break away from the tree when there is a high wind. To look 
out in the night when a storm is raging and see that all is 
safe, that no danger is impending from the cotton-wood, has 
become a custom. During the first part of June it is also a 
care to those that live near it. It is then that its tiny seedc 
which are not more than one twelfth of an inch long begin to 




Flowering branch. Single flower. 

PLATE XXVIII. SWAMP WHITE OAK. Quercus piatanoides, 
(75) 



76 TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

fly. They are hidden within a mass of soft, delicate cotton 
which is surrounded by tufts of long, white or rusty coloured 
hairs. As if with fleecy, etherial sails, they are then borne aloft 
by the slightest breeze. So abundantly are they dispersed that 
they have to be taken up in quantities from a near-by straw- 
berry bed, and when the windows on the tree's side of the 
house are left open the seeds can be gathered in basketfuls 
from under the furniture. This cotton-like fibre which sur- 
rounds the seeds of the poplar has been experimented with 
for the manufacturing of cloth ; but as yet the enterprise has 
not proved itself financially successful. Its wood also is of 
little value commercially and warps badly in drying. This 
poplar is the most rapid-growing tree of eastern North Amer- 
ica and under favourable circumstances reaches a height of 
forty feet in five or six years. 

East of the Rockies the tree has been much planted ; but it 
is not regarded as being long lived or thriving well in other 
than a moist soil. Its natural habitat is along the banks of 
rivers and streams and by lakes. Not one of the least remark- 
able features of the large tree that has been mentioned is the 
fact that it grows in dry soil. 

SWAMP WHITE OAK. {Plate XXVIII.) 
Quercus ftlatanoldes. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Beech. Head, narrow, round- 30-70 feet. Maine to Iowa, south- May, June. 

topped; lower branches, ward to Delaware Fruit: Sept., Oct, 

somewhat declined. and Georgia. 

Bark : light grey and divided into large, flat, flaky scales. Leaves : simple; 
alternate; obovate, with wedge-shaped and entire base and pointed or rounded 
at the apex ; sinuate-toothed, the waves far apart and so large as to resemble 
small lobes ; sinuses rounded and those of the middle waves extending deeper 
into the leaves than the others ; dull, dark green above and smooth; silvery 
and downy underneath. The ribs appear rusty. Acorns : ovoid; growing usu- 
ally in pairs on a puduncle sometimes three inches long. Cup: round ; covered 
with pubescent scales, the upper row becoming bristle-like and forming a 
fringe about the edge. Nut: chestnut-brown ; oval ; about one inch long ; 
edible; sweet. 

To see this tree in all the glory of its best development we 




Fruiting branch. 



Flowering branch. 



PLATE XXIX. WILLOW OAK. Quercus Phellos. 
(77) 



78 TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

should go to the region of the Great Lakes. When its identity 
is once known it is not easily forgotten, or confused with other 
trees. The manner in which its lower bark separates into thin 
scales and the little weird branches that are so often pendulous 
from larger limbs and sometimes from the trunk make it a 
marked figure on even a winter's landscape. From its leaves 
it is known as belonging to the group of chestnut oaks, as in 
outline they somewhat resemble those of the chestnut tree. 

The wood of the swamp white oak is light brown, closely 
grained and strong. Commercially it is not distinguished from 
that of the white oak, Q. alba, and of the burr oak, Q. tnacrocarpa. 
Pages 188 and 132 respectively. 

WILLOW OAK. PEACH-LEAVED OAK. (Plate XXIX) 
Quircus Phellos. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Beech. Conical head; y>2>ofeet. L. I. and N. J. southward April, May. 

branches, slender. " and westward. Fruit: Sept., Oct. 

Bark : reddish brown; almost smooth, although having close scales. Leaves: 
simple; alternate; with short grooved petioles; lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 
with pointed and bristle-tipped apex and pointed base ; entire and slightly un- 
dulate edge. When young, brilliant light green and soft above, dull and with a 
whitish down underneath ; becoming thick and shiny above as they grow 
older. Flowers; monoecious. Acorns: very small; almost sessile. Cup ; 
saucer-shaped; pubescent inside. Nut: brown; three-eighths to one-half inch 
long; globular. Kernel: bright orange ; bitter. 

There seems to be nothing about the foliage of this attractive 
tree to suggest to us the family to which it belongs ; but along 
with the autumn comes the little tell-tale, the acorn. No doubt 
there is lurking within it a strong sense of grace and outline, 
or perhaps a sort of hero-worship for the willows has led it to 
imitate their leaf. But in any case we cannot believe that it 
laments having stepped out of the beaten track of its relatives ; 
as its aspect is most gay and happy. In the southern towns it 
is much planted for ornament and has besides its beauty the 
advantage of growing rapidly. Its leather-like leaves remain 
fresh long after those of most other trees have fallen. They 




Flowering branch. 



Fruiting branch. 

PLATE XXX. LAUREL OAK. Quercus laurifolia. 
(79) 



80 TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

then turn a pale yellow. In moist woods and on sandy uplands 
the tree occurs as well as by the borders of swamps. 

LAURELOAK. SHINGLE OAK. WATER OAK. (Plate XXX.) 

Quercus laurifblia. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Beech. Head, dense, round-topped; 30-80 _/<?^, Penn. to Iowa and March, April, 

branches, slender. or higher, southward to Fla. Fruit: Oct. 

Bark : nearly black, flatly and broadly ridged. Leaves: simple; alternate; 
with grooved, yellow petioles; long oblong with pointed and bristle-tipped 
apex and pointed base. Edge entire, although the leaves of young shoots are 
sometimes undulately-lobed. Bright green, smooth, stiff and glossy above. 
Flowers: slightly downy below. Acorns: small; almost sessile. Cup: saucer- 
shaped, with closely compressed scales. Nut: globular or ovoid. Kernel: 
bitter. 

Two things are most noticeable about this tree : its tall 
stately trunk and its dark, lustrous head of laurel-like foliage. 
Within its centre it seems as though the breezes must be held 
and not allowed to rush madly through as is their wont. The 
tree is rather generally found east of the Alleghanies. Like that 
of the willow oak its reddish-brown wood is poor and of little 
value. One of its common names connects it with the making 
of shingles, for which purpose it is largely used. 

COriilON FRINGE TREE. OLD MAN'S BEARD. 

{Plate XXXI.) 
Chiondnthus Virginica. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Olive. 


Oblong. Head, narrow. 


8-35 /'. 


N.J. and southern 
Penn. southward. 


June. 
Fruit: Sept. 



Bark: brown, or ashy grey and divided into thin scales. Leaves: large; 
simple ; opposite; petioled; ovate or obovate, with pointed or rarely rounded 
apex and pointed or narrowed at the base. Dark green and smooth above ; 
pubescent underneath when young; thick. Flowers: snow-white; faintly fra- 
grant; growing in loose, drooping panicles. Calyx: small; four-lobed; tubular. 
Corolla: with four slender petals, three quarters of an inch long, barely united 
at the base. Stamens: two, very short. Pistil: one. Fruit: bluish purple ; 
oval; glaucous and containing one seed. 

The blossoms of the fringe tree are among those things of 
nature that are seen by all. They make no demand upon that 



PLATE XXXI. COMMON FRINGE TREE. Chio nan thus Virginica. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREOERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 




Single flower. Flowering branch. Fruiting branch. 

PLATE XXXII. SWEET VIBURNUM. Viburnum Lent ago. 
(81) 




82 TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

more gifted and subtle observation 
which watches tor the earliest signs 
of spring in growth that is apparently 
dead and is conscious of the beauty of 
the golden dust in the catkins of the 
hazel. They thrust themselves abun- 
dantly upon the sight, and the wind 
stirs their long petals that the attention 
may not wander from them. And 
about them there is a grace and fleeci- 
ness which is most enchanting. In 
cultivation the tree is frequently seen, and it would be quite 
without objectionable features for the ornamentation of parks 
and grounds were it not that its leaves unfold so late in the 
season. Before they do so the majority of other trees are al- 
ready fully clothed with verdure. They remind us of the 
leaves of the magnolias and in the autumn turn to a uniform 
tint of bright yellow. 

The wood of the fringe tree is closely grained and heavy. 
From the bark tonic properties are extracted which have been 
used in the treatment of fevers. 

SWEET VIBURNUM. SHEEP BERRY. NANNY BERRY. 

(Plate XXXII.) 

Vibilmum Lentago. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Honeysuckle. Round-topped^ 15-30 feet. Hudson Bay southward May, June, 
bushy. to Ga. and westward. Fruit: Oct. 

Bark : reddish brown and irregularly broken into small, thin plates. 
Branches: light green; very pubescent. Wood: hard; unpleasantly scented. 
Winter buds: glabrous. Leaves: simple; opposite; with slender margined 
petioles, the borders of which are wavy and upon which brownish glands are 
borne ; ovate, with pointed apex and rounded base, quite subject to variation ; 
finely and sharply serrate ; bright green; glossy; glabrous. Flowers: small ; 
white; perfect; growing in broad sessile cymes. Fruit: red, turning later to 
blue-black; ovoid ; growing in clusters on red petioles ; glaucous ; edible; sweet. 

The sweet viburnum is a small tree. Along the borders of 
streams and by swamps it rears itself boldly or seeks seclusion 




PLATE XXXMI. CRANBERRY TREE. Viburnum Opu/us. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTFD IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. S3 

in the deep woods. No matter, however, how lovely the tree, 
there is always a slight disappointment in perceiving that it has 
not the outer row of showy and neutral flowers that we associ- 
ate with V. Opulus, cranberry tree, and V, alnifolium, hobble- 
bush. 

Both of these are fine shrubs. Of the former, V. Opulus 
{Plate XXXIII), the bark is smooth and grey, and its leaves 
have from three to five lobes. Its fruit is juicy and acrid and is 
used as a substitute for the true cranberries. 

V. alnifolium {Plate XXXIV.) also bears bright scarlet and 
beautiful fruit, but it is not edible. Its blossoms, however, are 
very similar to those of the cranberry tree. The orbicular 
leaves are pointed at the apex, cordate at the base and have 
upon them a reddish scurf. 

RED MAPLE. SWAMP MAPLE. SCARLET MAPLE. 

SOFT MAPLE. {Plate XXXV, frontispiece.) 

Acer riibrum. 



FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

apie Round-topped; branches^ 30-50 or 100 New Brunswick to March, April, 

upright. feet. F/a., westward to Fruit: May, June. 
Texas and Dakota. 






Bark : dark grey; rather smooth or flaky when young, becoming rough as 
it grows older. Branches and twigs : reddish, marked by longitudinal white 
lenticels. Leaves: simple; opposite; with long, round, reddish petioles; 
rounded, with from three to five lobes variously shaped and toothed, the lower 
pair small when present and frequently absent. Apex of lobes, pointed and 
irregularly serrate ; the base of the leaf rounded or wedge shaped. Sinuses: 
rounded and extending hardly more than a third way in to the midrib. Green 
above, whitish underneath ; the veins pubescent on the under side. Floivers : 
crimson; showy; growing on short pedicels in drooping, sessile, umbel-like 
clusters which grow from lateral buds, and appear some time before the leaves. 
The staminate and pistillate flowers grow in separate clusters and usually on 
different trees. Fruit: bright red ; growing on lengthened pedicels with wings 
hardly an inch long and slightly incurved; glabrous. 

Who is it that can tell when the spring awakes, when the 
first sign of life is disclosed by the earth ? And how has he 
who perhaps tells us found it out ? Has he followed the honey 
bee from his lurking place, as through a dreary landscape he 
seeks the swelling blossoms ; or has he been led by the rabbit 



8 4 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 




Acer ricbrum. 



with his eager desire to gnaw the red 
maples' buds ? It is indeed the insects 
and animals that know best; for their 
search is not that of the dilettante. 
Their desire for food impels them 
to look about diligently, and when 
found they wish to carry it to their 
young also. Often before the snow 
is off the ground the sap of the red 
maple begins to ascend; and in earliest 
March, while the odour of winter's 
pageant is still in the air, the flower- 
buds begin to expand. Then it is not 
long before they unfold their exquisite 
blossoms which hang in the bare trees 
like a shower of crimson light. As 
we wander by the side of a stream, straining our eyes per- 
haps for the first sight of the white violet, they may be sway- 
ing over our heads. Hardly a leaf is to be seen on the trees 
thus early in the year; but the soil is soft and oozy, and we 
scent that the winter has passed. 

The red maple is undoubtedly one of the most beautiful trees 
of the American forest. As in the spring, the tree is in ad- 
vance of others in the autumn, when it changes its hue to 
varied tints of scarlet and orange. In brilliancy there is none 
other to compare with it. During the winter its twigs are of a 
deeper shade of red than at other seasons of the year. 

The wood of the red maple is reddish brown and hard. 
Furniture is made from it, and it is especially desirable when 
running through it is found a curly grain. From the bark a 
dye has been extracted and used by the Indians. Ink also has 
been made from it. 




PLATE XXXIV. H0B3LE-BUSH. Viburnum alnifolium. 



COPYRIGHT, 19 



5, BY FREDERICK A. SIOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMEBICA. 




Enlarged flower. 

PLATE XXXVI. SILVER MAPLE. Acer saccharinum. 
(85) 



86 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 



SILVER MAPLE. 



FAMILY. SHAPE 

Maple. Branches, pendulous 
or wide-spreading. 



WHITE MAPLE. 

{Plate XXX VI.) 

Acer sacchdrinum. 



SOFT MAPLE. 



HEIGHT 

30-120 feet '. 



RANGE 

New Brunswick to 
Fla. and westward. 



TIME OF BLOOM 
March, April. 

May, June. 



Fruit: 



Bark: reddish brown; flaky. Leaves : simple ; opposite ; with long petioles; 
rounded in outline and having five lobes ; equally notched and toothed ; the 
lower two smaller than the other three. Base of leaf, square or heart-shaped ; 
apex of lobes, pointed. Sinuses : narrow ; pointed. Brilliant pale green above, 
silvery white beneath. Pubescent when young, becoming glabrous; thin. 
Flowers: small; yellowish green; without petals; growing on pedicels in 
almost sessile corymbs from lateral buds and appearing before the leaves. Pis- 
tillate and staminate blossoms growing in separate clusters on the same or dif- 
ferent trees. Fruit : yellowish green, samaras growing on long, drooping pedi- 
cels ; glabrous at maturity. Wings : large ; one frequently undeveloped. 

About the leaf of the white 
maple there is something very 
beautiful. Its lines are so sharply 
cut, and it is so free from the least 
approach to stiffness. It shows 
rather the crispness of line that 
artists are always endeavouring 
to throw into their pictures. The 
texture of the leaf is fine, too, 
and pleasing. Through the silver 
lining run the pale yellow veins, 
and the colour effect is most 
aesthetic. It seems as though the 
singing of the breezes through 
these trees must be more classic 
and captivating than when it rushes 
through those that are more 
coarsely formed. The flowers are exquisite, and in earliest 
spring the trees, when seen from a distance, appear to be tipped 
with scarlet. In cultivation the tree is very general, as its 
beauty and rapid growth make it desirable for shade. Un- 
fortunately, through the brittleness of its branches, it is often 




Acer sacchdrinum. 




Enlarged Enlarged fruit, 

distillate flower. 



PLATE XXXVII. POISON SUMAC. Rhus Vernix. 
(87) 



88 TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

damaged by high winds. Throughout the valley of the Mississ- 
ippi it is one of the most common of the river trees. 

From its light-coloured, strong and rather brittle wood fur- 
niture is made, and it is largely used for interior work. The 
sap of the tree yields maple sugar in small quantities. 

POISON SUriAC. POISON ELDER. POISON ASH. 

POISON DOGWOOD. (Plate XXXVII.) 

Rhus Vdrnix. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Sumac. 


Head, round; branches, 


6-25 feet. 


New England south- 


June, July. 




pendulous. 




ward to Fla. and 
westward. 


Fruit: Sept. 



Bark: light grey; smooth. Branches: reddish brown ; smooth. Leaves: 
compound; alternate; with reddish, smooth, unwinged stalks; odd-pinnate, 
with from seven to thirteen oblong leaflets which have short red petiolules, the 
terminal one longer than the other. Apex and base pointed or rounded. 
Edge : entire ; dark green above, paler below. Midrib : scarlet above ; thin ; 
glabrous at maturity. Flowers: dioecious; dull greenish white; axillary ; many 
imperfect; growing in loose panicles. Berries: greenish white; about the size 
of peas ; smooth ; shiny ; poisonous to the touch as is the whole plant. Juice : 
turning black with exposure to the air. 

Not even among the plant world can everything be taken 
on faith as good and beautiful. Here are the harmful spirits 
as well as in other places, and unhappily it must be related 
that such a one is the sumac of the swamps. 
So violently poisonous to the touch is this 
native species that to those that are not 
immune to its evil effects even passing by the 
shrub is fraught with danger, should the 
breeze be in such a direction as to place 
upon them its flying pollen. It is especially 
to be avoided when the pores of the skin 
are open as in perspiration. That the edges 
of the leaflets are entire ; that its leaf-stalks 
are without wing; and that its whitish fruit grows in axillary 
panicles are simple guides to its identification. By remember- 
ing them the possibility of confusing it with other and harm- 
less species will be avoided. The tree, however, is not wholly 





PLATE XXXVIII. SWAMP HICKORY. Hicoria minima. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 89 

bad. Some of its properties are of considerable medicinal 
value. The juice also can be used as a black, lustrous varnish 
similar to that furnished by the related Japanese lacquer tree, 
he poison sumac is almost exclusively found in swamps. 



. 



WAilP HICKORY. BITTER-NUT. (Plate XXXVIII.) 

Hicbria minima. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Walnut. Head, broad: branches^ 50-75-100 Maine westward and May \ June. 

upright. feet. southward to Fla. Fruit: Se/t. t Oct. 
and Texas. 

Bark: bright reddish brown; broken into thin, close, flake-like scales. 
Leaves; compound ; alternate ; odd-pinnate; with slender, sometimes flattened 
stalks and having from five to nine sessile leaflets ; lanceolate ; pointed at the 
apex and pointed or blunt at the base ; sharply and coarsely serrate ; glabrous 
on both sides or very sparingly pubescent underneath. Dark yellow green 
above, lighter below. Staminate catkins : growing in threes on slender 
peduncles and having lanceolate bracts ; pubescent. Pistillate flowers : cov- 
ered with a yellow tomentum. Fruit: with a dark green, rounded husk; soft 
and thin, with winged edges and splitting when ripe half way to the middle. 
Nut : whitish ; broader than long ; thin-shelled ; depressed at the top. Ker- 
nel: very bitter. 

By the swamp borders or in the low, wet woods of many lo- 
calities this noble tree is plentiful. Its range extends farther 
northward than that of any other one of the hickories, and it is 
abundant in Canada. Its rapid growth and broad, shapely head 
also make it a desirable feature in cultivation. But its fruit is 
much better to look upon than it is to eat ; it is indeed a " bit- 
ter-nut." From the accompanying illustration an idea of the 
exquisite colouring of its foliage can be gained, and it is inter- 
esting to know that it owes its sunny tint to many small, golden 
glands that lie on the under surface of the leaflets. 

Commercially Hicoria minima is less valuable than is general 
with those of its genus. Ox-yokes and hoops are, however, 
made from its pliable wood, and on the hearth it feeds a quick- 
snapping, lively flame. 



90 TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

WATER HICKORY. SWAMP HICKORY. BITTER 
PECAN. {Plate XXXIX.) 

Hicbria aqudtica. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Walnut. Head, narrow; branches, 40-ioQfeet. Va. to Fla. and March, April, 
upright. Texas. Fruit: Sept., Oct. 

Bark: light reddish brown; rough and having scales. Buds: reddish 
brown; flattened, the terminal one very large. Leaves : compound; alternate' 
odd-pinnate, with from seven to eleven ovate-lanceolate leaflets pointed at the 
apex and rounded or wedge-shaped at the base ; serrate ; dark green above, 
brown and lustrous below and pubescent. Staminate flowers : growing in 
long, slender catkins and produced from separate or leaf-bearing buds. Pistil- 
late flowers : oblong and covered with pubescence. Fruit ; growing in clus- 
ters of a few, with a greenish, thin husk which splits into four sections. Nut: 
darkly-coloured ; four-angled ; rough and flattened, and having a thin shell. 
Kernel : bitter ; puckery to the taste. 

Away from the swamps this tree is seldom seen growing in 
the full prime of its beauty, but when there, even although it 
is a small tree, it has about it the same picturesqueness and 
freshness that is associated with the genus. Its fondness truly 
is for low country. Often the river swamps in which it seeks 
its home are inundated during part of the year, and for this 
reason it is difficult of access when its timber is desired. It 
would seem, however, as though the commercial instinct might 
be sacrificed rather than take it away from places to which it 
adds so sylvan a charm, especially as its dark brown wood 
is of less value than that of any other one of the hickories. 
Although closely grained and compact it is very brittle and is 
used for little else than fuel and fences. Once having seen the 
fruit of the tree it cannot readily be mistaken; for the dusky, 
flattened and rough shell is very distinctive. 

ASH-LEAVED I1APLE. BOX ELDER. (Plate XL.) 

Acer Negiindo. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Maple. Wide-spreading. 20-50 feet, or Vermont and Penn, April. 

higher. southward and Fruit: June, 

westward. 

Bark of branchlets : greenish brown ; ridged. Twigs : pea-green. Leaves: 
compound; opposite, with long, slender stalks; odd-pinnate, with three, fivt 




Pistillate flower. 

PLATE XXXIX. WATER HICKORY. Hicoria aquatica, 
(90 



9 2 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 



or rarely seTen ovate leaflets ; taper-pointed at the apex and pointed, rounded 
or wedged-shaped at the base ; coarsely and remotely toothed, often entire at 
the base ; deep green above, pale underneath. Ribs : distinct ; slightly pubes- 
cent. Flowers: yellowish green; dioecious; apetalous ; small; growing from 
the sides of the branches in drooping clusters and appearing before the leaves. 
The'fertile ones in racemes of from six to eight inches long. Samaras : Large; 
yellowish green ; the double wings, veiny. 

The box elder is a rather mysterious 
character and has much to answer for 
in the way it has puzzled the minds of 
botanists and earnest-thinking people. 
In manner of growth its foliage has 
suggested to some the elders, and 
again it has been thought to be con- 
nected with the ashes. Its fruit, how- 
ever, shows conclusively that it belongs 
to the maples. In spite of this ten- 
dency to conciliate all, although we 
should give it the benefit of the doubt 
and think that it has been trying always to imitate the best, 
it is a handsome tree of free and rapid growth. For the 
ornamentation of parks or gardens it is well adapted, as its 
foliage is a lively, brilliant green, and it is able to resist long 
droughts. Unfortunately it is not regarded as being very long- 
lived. 

The wood of the ash-leaved maple is creamy white and not 
strong. From it an inferior sort of furniture is made. In 
small quantities the bark yields maple sugar. To the tree is 
attached the distinction of having been one of the first of the 
North American ones that were known in Europe. 




Acer negtindo. 



BLACK ASH. HOOP ASH. WATER ASH. (Plate XLI.) 

Frdxinus nigra. 



FAMILY SHAPE 

Olive. Head y narrow^ slender; 
branches^ upright. 



HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

30-80 feet^ or New Found/and west' Aprils May. 

higher. ward, southward to Fruit: July. 
Fla. and Ark. 



Bark : dark, tinged with grey ; rough and broken into irregular plates, be- 
coming smooth in the branches which are marked with white, wJ^t-like dots. 




Enlarged flower. 

PLATE XL. ASH-LEAVED MAPLE. Acer negundo. 
(93) 




PLATE XLI. BLACK ASH. Fraxinus nigra. 
(94) 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 95 

Leaf -Buds : bluish black. Leaves: twelve to sixteen inches long ; compound; 
opposite; odd-pinnate; having grooved stalks with from seven to eleven 
broadly lanceolate, sessile leaflets, taper-pointed at the apex, and narrowed or 
rounded at the base ; sharply and irregularly serrate ; deep green and glabrous 
on the upper side; paler below and slightly pubescent along the whitish ribs. 
Flowers : dioecious ; growing in long panicles and appearing before the leaves. 
Samaras ; oblong ; blunt at both ends ; winged all around. 

As early as March we may begin to look about for the blue- 
black buds of the black ash. They seem not to mind about en- 
countering the cold, and the tree is found farther northward 
than any other one of the American ashes. In the swamps it 
grows at times so prolifically as almost to fill in the wet ground. 
When taken away and transplanted it is short-lived. As soon 
as the first frost touches the leaves, or even earlier in the 
autumn, they turn a rusty brown and begin to fall. When they 
are crushed the odour they emit is similar to that of the elder. 

The light brownish wood has a beautiful grain and is heavy 
although not very strong. It is used in cabinet work and ex- 
tensively for the making of barrel hoops. The Indians know 
well the black ash and seek the pliable young saplings to use 
in constructing their baskets. 

RED ASH. {Plate XLII.) 
Frdxinus Pennsylvdnica. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOO 


Olive. 


Head, irregular; 
branches, upright. 


$o-%o feet. 


Atlantic states and 

New Brunswick 

to Minnesota. 


April, May. 



Bark: brownish grey; slightly furrowed vertically and becoming smooth on 
the branches. Young shoots and leaf-stalks conspicuous for their pubescent, 
rusty down. Leaves: ten to twelve inches long; compound; opposite; odd- 
pinnate; with grooved, pubescent stalks and from five to nine long ovate or 
lanceolate leaflets, which have downy petiolules hardly one quarter of an inch 
long. Apex, taper-pointed ; base, pointed. Edge: entire or sparingly serrate 
towards the apex. Light green above, paler on the under side and becoming 
reddish. When unfolding, covered with a white tomentum. Flowers ; dioe- 
cious ; growing in compact panicles ; without petals. Samaras : from one to 
two and a half inches long ; broadly linear or oblanceolate, the wing rounded 
or bluntly tipped at the apex. They remain on the branches over the winter. 

The red ash is so called because the inner surface of the 
outer bark of the branches is a light red, and the down that 




Single samara. 

PLATE XLII. RED ASH. Fraxinus Pennsylvania. 
(96) 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 97 

appears on the branches is also a ruddy, rich shade. The 
former one of these peculiarities is a feature shared by the 
white ash which commercially is a more valuable tree. In the 
autumn the leaves of the red ash turn yellow, or brown and 
yellow, before falling. When the question of an ash's identity 
is to be settled, it should be remembered that the trees are 
both staminate and pistillate ; and it is only on the latter ones 

I hat fruit will be found. The staminate trees also must be ac- 
orded their true place and not condemned as useless ones 
mich no longer bear fruit. 

GREEN ASH. {Plate XLIII.) 
Frdxinus lanceolata. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Olive. Round-topped; branches, 20-65 feet. New England, south- April, May. 
spreading. ivard and "westward. 

Bark: greyish brown; furrowed. Branchlets : ash coloured and marked 
nth pale, cell-like places. Leaves: compound; opposite; odd-pinnate, with 
from five to nine ovate or lanceolate, taper-pointed leaflets which grow on 
smooth petiolules hardly a quarter of an inch long ; sharply serrate and 
becoming entire towards the base. Bright green on both sides and glabrous, 
although occasionally downy in the angles of the ribs. Flowers: dioecious. 
Samaras : small; similar to those of the white ash ; the wings more spatulate 
in outline. 

Between the red ash and the green ash there is great similar- 
ity. Their flowers are identical, and the variableness of the 
greon ash is added to make it somewhat difficult to tell them 
apart, excepting in extreme forms. The green ash, however, is 
very nearly glabrous throughout, and it is the smaller of the 
two trees. Its leaves also are shorter, narrower and more 
sharply serrate. But it is the intense, lustrous, bright green 
of the foliage by which it is most commonly known. Whether 
the rain falls or the sun shines upon the leaves they are ever 
brilliantly, beautifully green. Of all the ashes it is the one 
most planted for ornament, and it has a rare faculty for adapting 
itself to new surroundings. It requires an abundance of sun- 
light. 




PLATE XLIII. GREEN ASH. Fraxinus lanceolata. 
(98) 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 99 

Its wood is brown and strong. It is, however, not regarded 
as being of much value commercially, although necessity has 
sometimes caused it to be used as a substitute for the wood of 
the white ash. This tree and the red ash, while preferring 
moist ground, often grow on drier soil. 









" The mountain stirr'd its bushy crown 
And, as tradition teaches, 
Young ashes pirouetted down 

Coquetting with young beeches ; 
And briony-vine and ivy-wreath 

Ran forward to his rhyming, 

And from the valleys underneath 

Came little copses climbing." 

Tennyson. 



BALD CYPRESS. CYPRESS. {Plate XLIV.) 
Taxbdium distichum. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOto 

Pine. Conical; branches^ 60-150 feet. Delaware to Te.vas, April, 

spreading. Arkansas northward. 



Bark: reddish brown ; furrowed. Branchlets: slender. Leaves: light green ; 
simple; growing closely in two ranks along the branches ; half an inch long; 
needle-shaped ; pointed ; occurring awl-shaped and overlapping each other ; 
deciduous. Flowers: monoecious ; yellowish ; appearing some time before the 
leaves. Staminate Jlozvers : growing compactly in terminal, drooping panicled 
spikes. Pistillate ones: growing in rounded clusters. Cones : light brown; glob- 
ular ; the several angular scales forming a closed ball until mature. 

There is a strangeness in the ways and majestic aloofness 
of the bald cypress. It is not as other trees. In the Atlantic 
and Gulf states, where it sometimes forms extensive forests, 
few can enter without feeling a desire to know its history. It 
is ingenious too. That it may prevent the escape of moisture 
and resist the violence of autumnal gales, is thought to be the 
reason that its leaves, which may have been slender and spread 
out from the branches, sometimes become close and scale-like. 
At the time of pollenation, when it is shedding its golden 
dust, and with its leaves in various positions, it is represented 
by the illustration. 



ioo TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

But more interesting than all else about the tree are the so- 
called cypress knees, a feature that has baffled the theories 
and explanations of many. Dr. Charles Mohr, who has studied 
the. subject most profoundly and is an authority on the form- 
ation and usefulness of these knees, has been most kind in con- 
tributing the following account of them to " A Guide to the 
Trees." In his letter he says : " The following information has 
been taken as concisely as possible from the statements made in 
the manuscript of my monograph on Taxodium distichum 
and transmitted to the Forestry division of the United States 
department of Agriculture. 

" The pyramidal or conical excrescences of the roots of the 
cypress known as cypress knees and which form such a 
striking peculiarity of the trees are always produced under 
water, or in a constantly water-soaked soil. They are pro- 
duced often in great number within a radius of from twenty- 
five to forty feet or more from the trunk, varying from two to 
six feet and more in height, and always rise above the water. 
They are simple or with several tumid divisions and normally 
bare of leaf-bearing sprouts. In the trees approaching their 
fuller growth they are most frequently hollow, perfectly smooth 
on the inside of the shell, with its wood compact and firm. 

" The opinion about the uses these knees serve in the house- 
hold of the tree is divided, and their import to its life is not 
yet perfectly understood. On one side, it is contended that 
their purpose is purely mechanical, to serve the tree as an 
additional means for the support of the enormous weight of 
the tree in the loose ground, and to increase its resistance to 
the strain to which it is subjected under the pressure of heavy 
winds. On a close study of the root system below ordinary 
water mark, accidentally laid bare, the conclusion can scarcely 
be avoided that the function of the knees is chiefly mechanical. 
As an acute observer states, ' to strengthen the roots that the 
tree may anchor itself safely in a yielding soil, acting as 
trusses to increase their capacity for holding the tree firmly to 




PLATE X LI V. BALD CYPRESS. Taxodium distkhum. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



i 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 101 

the soil.' This opinion finds confirmation in the fact that 
scarcely any other tree of our forests offers a greater resistance 
to the force of storms under the most unfavourable soil con- 
ditions. 

" On the other hand it is held that the function of the knees is 
principally physiological by acting as organs of aeration. The 
exposed parts of the knees effect the absorption, and by their 
chlorophyll-bearing tissue, the partial decomposition of atmos- 
pheric gases under the influence of light, and their trans- 
mission to the sap of the roots, promote the process of 
assimilation in parts of the tree debarred from a sufficient 
supply of the same. 

"With the decay of the tree, the knees rot and finally disap- 
pear ; the same is said to take place after the drainage of the 
swamp. Not being needed they are not present in the trees 
grown on high land. 

" From the fact that the knees serve the tree mechanically 
by increasing the force of the tree to maintain its foothold in 
a yielding ground and that further by their physiological 
function the processes involved in its nutrition and growth 
are promoted, it appears clearly that in the peculiar develop- 
ment of the root system the cypress possesses the means of 
adapting itself perfectly to the conditions of its immediate 
surroundings." 

SOUTHERN WHITE CEDAR. {Plate XLV.) 

Chamcecyparis th^roides. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Pine. 


S/>ire-like; branches, 
horizontal. 


30-90 feet. 


Atlantic seaboard and 
Gulf states to Miss. 


April, May. 



Bark : light reddish brown ; very fibrous ; separating into loose scales. 
Branchlets: brown, their thin bark also separating. Leaves: tiny ; simple ; 
ovate and awl-shaped ; overlapping each other like scales and growing closely 
together in rows of four, up and down the branchlets. Dull brownish or blue- 
green ; glaucous. Cones : hardly one-half an inch wide; globose; sessile on 
leafy branches ; purplish at maturity ; glaucous, and opening towards the centre 
when ripe, not towards the base. Scales : thick ; several-pointed and as though 




^s. 




Enlarged bud. 

PLATE XLV. SOUTHERN WHITE CEDAR. Chamcecyparis thyoides. 

(102) 




PLATE XLVI. ARBOR-VITAE. Thuja occidentals. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY 
PrflNTEU IN AMERICA 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 



103 



fastened at their centres. Seeds : one or two under each fertile scale ; oval ; 
winged at the sides. 

In the fulness of Nature's heart she has provided this beau- 
tiful and fragrant tree to flourish abun- 
dantly in places where other useful timber 
trees are very chary of establishing them- 
selves. It grows in deep, cold swamps 
which are frequently immersed during 
several months of the year. In New 
England and the Middle States it is not 
as well-known as it is throughout its 
more southern range. The deeply tinted 
little cones which it develops are a pretty 
sight as they jauntily sit among the blue- 
green foliage: and the symmetrical figure 
of the tree makes a clearly cut and 
distinctive feature on the landscape. 

In the south the wood of the tree is 
used in ship-building. It is slightly fra- 
grant, light-coloured and most durable when in contact with 
the soil. The fact that it is soft and easily worked makes 
it desirable for many purposes. 




Cham&cy/aris thyo\des. 



ARBOR VIT>E. 



FAMILY SHAPE 

Pine. Conical; branches^ 
pendulous. 



WHITE CEDAR. 

Thuja occidentdlis. 



HEIGHT RANGE 

20-65 feet. North Carolina north- 
ward into Canada, and 
westward. 



{Plate XL VI.) 



TIME OF BLOOM 

April, May. 



Bark : greyish brown ; tinged with orange or red, and separated into narrow, 
deciduous strips. Leaves ; simple ; opposite ; blunt ; scale-like and overlapping 
each other as they'grow closely together on branchlets that are very flat. Bright 
green; aromatic; especially so when bruised. Cones: tiny; yellowish brown; 
ovate ; nodding and opening to the base when ripe. Scales : six to ten ; ob- 
long ; without points ; smooth. Seeds : one or two, with thin broad wings 
notched at the apex. 

This very formal and prim appearing tree has for a long time 
been extensively planted. In fact it was probably the first 



io 4 TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 

North American tree to be known in Europe and has been cul- 
tivated in Paris since before the middle of the XVIth century. 
It forms an excellent hedge. When under the gardener's care 
it is very prone to vary and produce new varieties, but it can 
hardly be said to become more beautiful than when in its 
wild state. The extremes of climate affect it very little. In 
America it becomes smaller and grows less abundantly as it 
reaches the limits of its southern range. Northward it covers 
large areas of swamp land, and the forests that it forms are al- 
most impenetrable. As of all coniferous trees, its fruit is inter- 
esting. The tiny cones remain on the branches over the winter 
to greet the new growth in the springtime. This is an act of 
pure courtesy on their part, as during the preceding autumn 
they have finished their own work and ripened and scattered 
their seeds. 

Speaking of this tree, Thoreau says : " How little I know of 
that arbor vitae when I have heard only what science can tell 
me. It is but a word, it is not a tree of life. But there are 
twenty words for the tree and its different parts which the In- 
dian gave, which are not in our botanies, which imply a more 
practical and vital science. He used it every day. He was 
well acquainted with its wood, its bark and its leaves. No 
science does more than arrange what knowledge we have of 
any class of objects. But, generally speaking, how much more 
conversant was the Indian with any wild animal or plant than 
we, and in his language is implied all that intimacy, as much as 
ours is expressed in our language." 

It is true the Indians had many uses for the fragrant, yellowish 
brown wood of the tree. They separated its thick layer of sap* 
wood, as they could do with ease, and with it strengthened 
their canoes. They also used parts of it in the making of their 
baskets. Fluids of medicinal value are yielded by the tree, 
and they have some local popularity for the curing of warts. 
The fresh young branches are used to make brooms. 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 



I0 S 



AHERICAN LARCH. TAHARACK. HACKHATACK. 

{Plate XL VI I) 

Lartx laricina. 



r AMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Pine. 


Tall, straight; branches, 
spreading. 


50-100 J 'eet. 


Northern III. to 
N. E., northward 
to New Foundland. 


May. 



Bark : close, becoming scaly. Leaves : less than three quarters of an inch 
or two inches long ; simple ; thread-like ; growing in bunches of many on short 
twigs along the branches and having no sheaths ; pale green ; soft ; delicate ; 
they wither and fall in the autumn. Cones about half an inch long ; 
broadly ovate; growing on short peduncles at the ends of the branches; 
greenish when young, and becoming purplish or brown at maturity. Seeds : 
few ; rounded ; thin ; entire. 

11 Give me of your roots, O Tamarack ! 
Of your fibrous roots, O Larch-Tree I 
My canoe tc bind together, 
So to bind the ends together 
That the water may not enter, 
That the river may not wet me I 
And the Larch with all its fibres, 
Shivered in the air of morning, 
Touched his forehead with its tassels, 
Said, with one long sigh of sorrow, 

PTake them all, O Hiawatha I " 
How beautifully has Longfel- 
low depicted the Indian as one 
in sympathy with nature. When 
Hiawatha began to build his 
canoe, he went to all the trees 
that he knew has such materials 
as were necessary to him, and 
said, " Give me " ; and although 
it should have caused their death, 
they answered, " Take, O Hia- 
watha ! " Here was no ruthless 
tearing away of life without per- 
mission ; it was the tribute of a 
man's understanding to these 
mute inhabitants of the forest. 





Staminate Scale of cone. 



PLATE XLVII. AMERICAN LARCH. Larix lartcina. 
(166) 



TREES GROWING NEAR WATER. 107 

Although they have no souls, life must still be sweet to 
them. 

The American larch with its soft, fine foliage is one of our 
most graceful trees. In the early spring its flowers peep out, 
much before the leaves ; they grow from broad lateral buds, 
and although the sterile ones are yellow the fertile ones are a 
brilliant crimson. The light brown wood of the tree is resinous 

tnd very durable. Its more practical uses than those already 
eferred to are in the making of railroad ties and various parts 
of ships. 

L. Europcea is a relative of the American tree which is fre- 
quently seen in cultivation. It is of rapid and fine growth and 
very ornamental. Perhaps its colour is a deeper shade of green 
than that of the native one, and its leaves are a trifle longer. 
Its branches appear to droop more, and its cones too are longer 
and have many more scales. There is a weeping form of the 
European larch which is also known in cultivation. 



Trees Preferring to Grow in Moist Soil: 
Lowlands and Meadows. 

All about the soil was moist and traversing it was a road 
that had become hard and dry. On either side of the road 
grew trees. They were water trees that had strayed away 
from home. In the distance trailed a sluggish stream. Did 
the trees long for it ? The ones on the farther side of the 
road inclined over it so that a squirrel could hardly sit upright 
under them ; a?id those on the side nearest the water leaned 
away from the road until they continually broke down its hard 
bank. It was a strange scene through which to travel. 

In the lowlands, away from the streams and swamps, there 
are many trees ; but they are mostly contented with their lot, 
and not so unhappy as those by the road. 

UMBRELLA-TREE. ELK- WOOD. (Plate XL VIII.) 
Magnblia tripttala. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Magnolia. 


Bushy. 


20-40 feet. 


Southeastern Penn. to 

Ala.; ivest-ward to 

A rk. and Miss. 


May, June. 



Bark: light grey; smooth; marked with small dots similar to blisters. 
Branches: green ; turning brown and grey as they grow older; brittle. Juice : 
fragrant; bitter. Leaves: simple; alternate; ovate-lanceolate; with short, 
stout petioles and growing in clusters at the ends of the branches ; pointed at 
the apex and tapering to a point at the base ; entire ; bright green ; the lower 
surface covered with a thick tomentum at maturity ; glabrous. Flowers : seven 
and eight inches in diameter ; cream-white ; growing at the ends of the branches. 
Sepals: light green ; obovate ; reflexed ; thin. Petals : six to nine ; narrow 
and concave. Filaments: bright purple. Cone oi fruit: ovoid ; rose coloured 
at maturity. 

A glance at this tree either when it is in bloom or in fruit is 
enough to assure us that it is a magnolia. Clustered about it 




PLATE XLVIII. UMBRELLA-TREE. Magnolia trifietala. 
(109) 




PLATE XLIX. NORTH AMERICAN PAPAW. Asimina triloba, 
(no) 




PLATE L. JAMAICA CAPER TREE. Capparis Jamazcenszs. 

COPVRIQHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. Ill 

are many family traditions. Although it cannot vie in beauty 
or outline with the great-flowered magnolia, it is far from being 
without its own loveliness. Among the great, lustrous leaves, 
which are often twenty inches long, the cylinder-shaped bunches 
of ruddy fruit rest perhaps even more peacefully than do the 
unfolding blossoms. The ribs of an umbrella are somewhat 
suggested by the arrangement of the leaves at the ends of the 
branches and it was this peculiarity which led the early settlers 
in Virginia and North Carolina to call it umbrella or parasol tree. 
Its specific name refers to its three petaloid sepals. The tree 
is nowhere common. It grows in rather wet, deep soil, a little 
inland from the great swamps, and by the borders of woods it is 
found intermingled with masses of rhododendron. The tree is 
more hardy than many others of the family, and for this reason 
much attention has been paid to it by horticulturists. It is the spe- 
cies most generally seen in the northern United States and in 
Europe. 

NORTH AriERICAN PAPAW. CUSTARD APPLE. 

{Plate XLIX.) 
Asimina triloba. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Custard apple. Branches^ 10-40 feet. Penn. and western N. K., May \ June. 

spreading. southward to Ioxva Fruit: Sept. y Oct. 

and westward. 

Bark : dark brown ; marked with silvery blotches ; smooth. Branchlets : 
light brown, fringed with red and marked with narrow, parallel grooves. 
Leaves : five to ten inches long ; simple ; alternate ; with pubescent petioles ; 
obovate-lanceolate, with pointed or slightly rounded apex and taper-pointed or 
rounded base ; entire ; light green above, paler beneath and covered on the 
lower surface with a rusty down ; glabrous at maturity ; thin ; glossy. Flow- 
ers : solitary ; axillary; pendulous ; growing on club-shaped, pubescent ped- 
uncles and appearing with the leaves. Sepals : three ; pubescent. Petals : 
greenish yellow, gradually turning to dull purple ; six, in two rows, the inner 
ones small. Stamens ; numerous ; on the receptacle. Pistils : appearing as 
though enclosed in a round head formed by the anthers. Fruit : three to five 
inches long ; oblong ; yellow and glaucous when young, becoming dark brown 
when fully ripe. Fragrant ; edible ; sweet. 

From the true papaw of the West Indies, this one is very 

different ; and the genus is the only one of its family which is 

not tropical in its preference. It can hardly be said, however, 

to attain its full state of development in the north. It is a 



ii2 TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 

small tree or shrub, often only a bush, and when in full foliage 
appears as though it were weighted down with the abundance 
of its large, shining leaves. In the valley of the Mississippi 
the tree is very common, and about that district its fruit is sent 
in large quantities to the markets. Before it is fully ripe it 
emits, as do the other parts of the tree, a peculiar and disagree- 
able odour. 

The papaw is a cautious little character and mistrusts the 
vagaries of the wind. To perform the office of cross-fertiliza- 
tion it relies with greater faith on the insects, for they can 
assuredly be attracted by their appetites. At the base of the 
inner petals, therefore, the flowers secrete abundant nectar. 
The stamens are raised in a hemispherical mass from the cen- 
tre of the bell-shaped flowers, and from it the stigmas protrude. 
As the insect squeezes his body through the small opening be- 
tween the stamens and the inner petals in search of the feast, 
he is, no doubt, quite unconscious that the stigmas are eagerly 
taking from him the golden pollen which he has attracted at 
his last stopping place. 

JAMAICA CAPER TREE. {Plate Z.) 
Cdpparis Jamaice'nsis. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Caper. Trunks straight, slender. \%-%o/eet. Southern Florida. April, May. 

Bark : dark reddish brown ; irregularly broken. Branchlets : angular. 
Leaves: simple; alternate; oblong-lanceolate or elliptical; growing on peti- 
oles about a quarter of an inch long; rounded and notched at the apex, 
rounded at the base ; entire ; dark yellowish green and lustrous on the upper 
side, paler below and rough from the presence of tiny scales ; the midrib con- 
spicuous. Flowers ; white ; fragrant ; growing at the ends of the branches in a 
terminal cluster. Sepals : recurved. Corolla : with four rounded petals which 
become purple as they fade. Stamens: long; numerous; with purple filaments 
and yellow anthers. Pods : two to several inches long ; brownish red when 
ripe and containing several kidney-shaped seeds. 

There is an inspiration to be had from the pure, white flow- 
ers of the Jamaica caper tree, with their long filaments as deli- 
cate and misty in colouring as the threads of a spider's web. 
Their fragrance also seems to be quite in harmony with the 
warm, luxurious atmosphere upon which they lean. In the 




PLATE LI. RED BUD. Cercis Canadensis. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREOERICK A. STOKES COMP:.::*. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 113 

West Indies the tree has many relatives, and there when the 
pods of the species have turned to dark, reddish purple they are 
called, with a strange attempt at hilarity, " dead man's fingers." 
After the seeds have fallen they twist many times in drying. 
The specimen from which the coloured illustration was painted 
was found at Jew-Fish Key, in southern Florida. 

The yellow wood of the tree is tinted with red. It has a fine 
grain and a surface not unlike that of satin. 

RED BUD. AMERICAN JUDAS-TREE. (Plate LL) 

Carets Canadensis. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Senna. Broad, flat head; 10-50 feet. Ontario to N . J . southward April, May. 

branches, and westward. Fruit: Sept. 
spreading. 

Bark: purplish grey, the young branches almost smooth. Leaves: simple; 
alternate ; with petioles which are swollen at each end into a small, round ex- 
tuberance. Rounded-cordate, the apex tapering into a blunt point and the 
midrib sometimes projecting into a bristle. Palmately-veined ; entire ; glab- 
rous or often slightly pubescent on the under side of the veins. Flowers : 
handsome ; several growing in sessile, umbel-like clusters on the old wood and 
appearing before the leaves ; acrid to the taste. Calyx: red. Petals: rosy 
pink; the wings overlapping or covering the small standard. Pods: small ; 
shuttle-shaped ; winged along the seed-bearing margin and containing many 
flat, puckery-tasting seeds. 

This little tree, for we are most accus- 
tomed to seeing it small, is handsome at 
all seasons of the year ; but it is truly a 
sight in the early days of spring when it 
is radiant with its exquisitely bright and 
cheery blossoms. So eager then is the 
tree to cover itself with them that they 
sometimes appear even upon its trunk. 
From a distance many might be allured 
to its presence and think they were 
approaching a profusion of deeply-tinted c/rds Canadensis. 

peach blossoms, especially when it grows in among the haw- 
thorns and flowering dogwood. As soon as the leaves 
unfold, however, their shape would forbid such an error 
and the flowers have the papilionaceous corolla of the senna 




ii4 



TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 



family. The legumes are a more yellow tone of green than 
are the leaves and add in their turn touches of colour, like 
high lights, throughout the tree. When given good soil and 
sufficient room for development it grows rapidly in cultivation 
and is a charming acquisition to parks and gardens. Its dark, 
reddish-brown wood is not strong. 

An ugly tradition that clusters about the old world relative 
of this tree is that from its branches Judas hanged himself. 



FOUR-WINGED SNOWDROP TREE. 
BELL TREE. {Plate LII.) 
Mohrodhidron Carolinum. 



SILVER 



FAMILY SHAPE 

Storax. Head, narrow; branches, 
stout. 



HEIGHT RANGE 

30-90 feet, West Va. to Illinois 
or a shrub, southward to Fla. 
and Texas. 



TIME OF BLOOM 

March, A/ril. 



Branches : reddish brown ; ridged. Leaves ; simple ; alternate ; slender- 
petioled ; ovate or oblong, with pointed apex and rounded or wedge-shaped 
base; slightly serrate; bright green and glabrous above, slightly pubescent 
underneath; thin. Mowers: growing in loose, drooping clusters along the 
branches and appearing with or before the leaves. Calyx : short; four- 
toothed. Corolla : campanulate ; four-parted. Stamens : eight to sixteen. 
Pistil: one. Seed-vessels: long; oblong; four-winged and conspicuously 
tipped with a remnant of the style. 

So few leaves and flowers are to 
be seen when these fair snowdrops 
cover the tree that one is almost 
inclined to look upon them with 
suspicion and to wonder whether in 
spite of their unsullied freshness 
they have been desirous of taking a 
peep at the earth before it was fully 
clothed. Butwhatevermayhavebeen 
their motives, it is truly a joy to have 
them come forth so early in the sea- 
son and to feel that the back of father 
Winter is broken. When hung with 
them the tree is a most pleasing 





PLATE Lll. FOUR-WINGED SNOWDROP TREE. 
Mohrodendron Carol in urn. 



COPYRIGHT, 



3, BY FREDERICK A. SIOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTEO IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 115 

sight. Often we then stop and wonder to find it among the 
hickories and buckeyes : it would seem as though it should 
find the company of the magnolias and cherry trees more 
congenial. On moist, wooded slopes, in woods or nearing the 
banks of streams it grows, and it is hardy as far northward as 
eastern Massachusetts. It then however becomes a shrub. 



NARROW-LEAVED COTTONWOOD. {Plate LIU.) 
Pdpulus angustifblia. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Willow. Pyramidal^ slender. 30-65 feet. Dakota westward and to Aprils May. 

Arizona and New Mexico. 

Bark: yellowish green and broken on old trees into broad, flat ridges. 
Branches : grey. Leaves: simple; alternate; with petioles that are not 
flattened laterally; lanceolate, or ovate-lanceolate; pointed or blunt at the 
apex and narrowed or rounded at the base ; finely or coarsely serrate ; yellow- 
green above, lighter below; the mid-rib yellow; thin. Statu inate catkins : 
cylindrical. Pistillate ones: from two to four inches long. Capsule: ovate 
and surrounded by fine soft hairs. 

When the flower-buds of the poplars begin to swell and their 
colour changes to deeper tints every day, then we feel as 
though the sleeping spring had indeed awaked. In fact many 
mistake these early unfolding flowers for the first shimmer of 
young foliage. But on both the staminate and pistillate trees 
the catkins lengthen and have satisfactorily settled their little 
domestic affairs some time before the leaves burst from their 
silver buds. And in this hastening into bloom there is some- 
thing of method to be detected. The poplars rely on the wind 
to carry their pollen from one plant to another and to facilitate 
its reaching them, the pistillate flowers hang mostly near the 
tips of the branches. Were the trees fully clothed with foliage 
it would greatly obstruct the flying pollen and direct it into 
idle paths. 

When the leaves of Populus angustifolia unfold their out- 
line is rather a surprise and is seen to resemble that of one of 
the broad-leaved willows. From their buds exudes abundant 
balsam. In moist soil and along the banks of streams of the 




Capsule. Seed. 

PLATE Llll. NARROW-LEAVED COTTONWOOD. Populus angusttfolia. 

(lid) 



TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 



"7 



far west, especially throughout the Rocky Mountains, this poplar 
is the common species. Its wood is light, soft and very weak. 

AMERICAN HOLLY. (Plate LIV.) 

Ilex opaca. 



FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT 

Holly. Head) compact; QQ-$ofeet. 
branches, spreading. 



RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Southern Maine along the April-June, 

coast to Fla. and westward. Fruit: Sept. 



Bark: light grey; smooth. Branchlets : slightly pubescent. Leaves: sim- 
ple; alternate; elliptical or oval, with pointed apex and pointed base; the 
teeth, sharp and spine-like ; far apart. Sinuses : rounded. Feather-veined, 
the veins indistinct on the lower surface. Evergreen; dark green and glossy 
above ; lighter and tinged with yellow below ; thick ; stiff ; glabrous. Flowers: 
white ; both staminate and pistillate ; axillary, and having their parts in fours. 
Fruit : a bright red drupe which frequently remains on the tree well into the 
winter. 

The associations of the holly are all with the season of 
merry-making and the blazing log of the yule-tide. When in a 
wild state it needs, to bring out the beauty of its bright, red 
berries and thick, shining leaves, the glistening white of a 
snow-covered earth and the bare, gaunt 
branches of other trees. By contrast then 
its freshness is very attractive. During the 
dusty, heated summer it might readily be 
passed by unseen. The American holly is 
not thought to be as beautiful as the English 
one. There are fewer berries to be found 
on it ; and its leaves have not nearly so 
high and clear a lustre. But it is still a 
crisp and cheery appearing tree and worthy 
of a more extended cultivation than it 
receives. 

The wood of the holly is almost white. It is hard and fine 
of grain. When made into work tables, boxes and similar arti- 
cles it is very pretty. 

/. monHcola, large-leaved holly, bears a leaf which is very 
distinctive from that of I. opaca. It is ovate-lanceolate, with a 
taper-pointed apex and a finely serrated edge. In texture it is 




Ilex opaca. 




Single flower. 

PLATE LIV. AMERICAN HOLLY. Ilex opaca. 
(118) 




PLATE LV. THREE-FLOWERED THORN Crataegus triflora. 



COPYRIGHT. 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 119 

thin and not evergreen. The tree is rather tall and slender 
and occasionally reaches a height of forty feet. Again it 
occurs as a shrub. In May we shall find it in bloom. By 
many it is well known and sought for in the damp woods of 
the Catskill Mountains. It extends southward along the 
mountains to Pennsylvania and to Alabama. 

THREE-FLOWERED THORN. {Plate L V.) 

Crataegus tri flora. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Apple. Spreading /rem base. xi-vo/eet. Georgia and Alabama. April. 

Bark of branches ; light greenish grey and close, becoming scaly. Spines : 
dark red; branched; numerous on the main stem. Leaves: simple; alternate; 
growing at the ends of the twigs; ovate ; pointed at the apex and rounded at 
the base or tapering into a margin which extends along each side of the short 
petiole ; irregularly or doubly serrate ; bright dark green above and pubescent 
when young, later becoming rough ; paler below and pubescent. Flowers : 
large ; growing in corymbs of mostly three flowers on pubescent petioles, the 
lateral ones, the longest. Calyx : with five lanceolate fringed lobes. Corolla: 
with five rosaceous white petals. Stamens: numerous. Fruit: globose; 
brilliant orange or red. 

Crataegus triflora is a rare tree : one quite imbued with the 
idea of seclusion. At the present time it is only known to 
occur at two stations ; along the cliffs of the Coosa River in 
Georgia and near Birmingham, Alabama. Mr. Beadle, of Bilt- 
more, who has made an exhaustive study of the genus, has seen 
it in bloom at the former place where, he says, there are about 
fifty of the trees ; and he describes the effect they en masse 
produce, when they unfold amid the russet tints of early 
spring, as very lovely. " Individually," he says, " the shrub is 
rather poor." At the top its branches divide many times and 
the leaves appear to be thrust at the ends of the twigs so as to 
form a covering for their nakedness. The particular charm of 
its flowers is that they are large, and the two side ones seem 
to have been quaintly prolonged so as to give a sort of pro- 
tection to the one in the middle. From the coloured plate 
this feature and the brilliancy of the fruit can be seen. 

It was through the aid of a glance into the note book of Mr. 



120 



TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 



Beadle and a well dried specimen that the accompanying 
description was written. 

AMERICAN ELM. WHITE ELM. (Plate L VI.) 

Ulmus Americana. 



FAMILY SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Elm. Head, round, broad; 


100-120 feet. 


New Foundland south- 


March, April. 


branches, pendulous. 




ward to Fla. and west- 
ward to Texas. 


Fruit: May. 



Bark: ashy grey ; flaky. Branches: light green when young and without corky 
ridges. Buds : flattened ; smooth, or slightly pubescent. Stipules : linear to 
lanceolate. Leaves : simple ; alternate ; with smooth petioles ; oval, or obovate, 
with taper-pointed apex and rounded or slightly pointed base ; unequal sided ; 
coarsely or doubly serrate. Ribs : straight ; conspicuous ; veins and veinlets 
numerous ; glabrous, or slightly rough above, pubescent underneath and be- 
coming smooth at maturity. Flowers ; dioecious ; minute ; growing in close, 
drooping clusters on jointed stalks from lateral buds and appearing before the 
leaves. Samaras : oval or ovate ; glabrous, with thickly fringed margins. 

The American elm is very grace- 
ful and stately. Its great arching 
limbs uphold a spray of dark and 
beautiful foliage which appears on 
the landscape like a suddenly ar- 
rested fountain. It is not strange 
that so much sentiment clings about 
these trees ; for at times they have 
been associated with thrilling events 
in their country's history. It was 
under the shade of a great elm at 
Cambridge, Mass., that Washington 
stepped forward, drew his sword, 
and in a few words assumed com- 
mand of the American army. The 
tree, after that eventful morning, 
was known as the "Washington 
Elm " ; and longer than any other 
being it remained to testify to the younger generations that 
it had been a witness of the scene. Although not at all 
a phenomenal tree in size, the estimate was at the time made 




ulmus A tnericana. 




PLATE LVI. AMERICAN ELM. Ulmus Americana. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BV FKEOERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED >* AMERICA, 



TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 121 

that it developed every year a crop of seven millions of leaves, 
and that they exposed to the air a surface of foliage equal to 
about five acres. 

On the banks of the Delaware there stood also a famous elm 
tree. Under its branches William Penn made his treaty with 
the Indians. It was not for lands, but for peace and friend- 
ship. On March 3d, 1810, "The Treaty Tree," as the elm was 
called, was prostrated by a storm. Its consecutive rings proved 
it to be over two hundred and eighty-three years old. On 
its site a monument with a suitable inscription was erected by 
the Penn society. 

The elms are dioecious ; their staminate and pistillate blos- 
soms grow on different trees, or, to use the popular but erro- 
neous expression, they are male and female. From each other 
the two can be readily distinguished. The bud-scales of the 
elms with their fringed margins and tufts of soft, white hairs 
are very pretty. Very early in the spring they blow about 
and often tint the ground while the flowers that have sprung 
from them are unfolding. 

The wood of the American elm is rather coarsely grained, 
hard and heavy. Its medullary rays and its large open ducts 
are conspicuous. For the making of small articles, floors, and 
in ship building, it is very useful. The Indians occasionally 
substituted its bark for that of birch when building their canoes. 
It is to be lamented that so much damage is inflicted upon 
these trees by insects and that their beauty is thus often 
marred. Throughout New England, where the elms have con- 
tributed so much to the beauty of the towns, it is quite pathetic 
to see so many in a dilapidated condition. When planted the 
tree requires soil where it can imbibe abundant moisture, and 
to be away from the shade of other trees. It is very rapid of 
growth. 



122 TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 

CORKY WHITE ELJ1. ROCK ELM. HICKORY ELH. 

(Plate L VII.) 
Ulmus racembsa. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Elm. Head, round-topped; %o-ioo feet. New England southward April. 

branches, rigid. and westward. Fruit: June. 

This species of elm might readily be mistaken for Ulmus 
Americana as in general characteristics there is much that is 
similar between the two. The marks of distinction, however, 
are that the young branches of Ulmus racemosa are pubescent, 
and as they grow older they develop large, corky wings. The 
fringed bud-scales are more often than not covered with a soft 
down, and the flowers grow in a raceme. The leaves, too, have 
many fine hairs on the upper surface and are not so noticea- 
bly serrate as those of Ulmus Americana. In the autumn its 
foliage turns a bright yellow. The tree inhabits low grounds 
where a heavy, wet clay soil prevails ; or it flourishes in gravelly 
uplands and on the high bluffs of rivers. It grows slowly, and 
its wood, although valuable, is threatened by extinction. While 
it has been neglected by planters, the axe has sought it with dili- 
gence. In the forests of Canada and North America most of 
the large trees have already been felled. 

U. alata, winged elm, Wahoo, is a comparatively small tree, 
forty or fifty feet high, with an open, round-topped head and 
slender branches, which are mostly covered with corky ridges. 
The leaves are somewhat rough on the upper surface and 
especially pubescent along the under veins. The samaras, also, 
are pubescent and are densely fringed on their margins. In 
wet, gravelly, or dry soil, the tree is known to grow. It in- 
habits the country from Virginia to Illinois and southward. 

5LIPPERYELM. MOOSE ELM. RED ELM. (Plate L VI II.) 

iJlmus fitlva. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Elm. Head) broad, flat; 6070 feet. Quebec and New England March, April, 
branches, spreading. southward and westward. Fruit: May. 

Bark: reddish brown; rough. Branches: bright green when young, and 
turning to light grey ; very rough, although not having corky wings. Inner 




Enlarged flower. 

PLATE LVII. CORKY WHITE ELM. Ulmus racemosa. 
(123) 



i2 4 TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 

bark: white; slippery. Leaf-buds: large; round and covered with a reddish 
scurf. Leaves : simple ; alternate ; with rough petioles about an eighth of an 
inch long ; ovate or obovate, with taper-pointed apex and rounded or slightly 
cordate base. Coarsely and doubly serrate ; rough and harsh on the upper sur- 
face, soft and downy underneath in the angles of the straight ribs. Flowers: 
growing on short pedicels in globular clusters ; fragrant when dried. Samaras : 
dull yellow; semi-orbicular and containing a round, flat seed. The margins of 
the wings unfringed ; glabrous, excepting over the seed. 

There is something intensely human in the desire to chew, 
to chew the cud of meditation ; and when in the open country 
one meets a boy with a certain felicitous expression and wag- 
ging jaws, it is good evidence that somewhere in his rambles 
he has met with the slippery elm tree. Should his pockets be 
turned inside out there would also be a chance of finding a 
quantity of its fragrant, inner bark stored away for future dis- 
posal. To chew this gummy, slippery substance is not, per- 
haps, the smallest item in his enjoyment as he carelessly breathes 
the summer air or gazes at a cloudless sky. Unfortunately 
this innate desire of the boy is often gratified at the tree's ex- 
pense. In fact, it is almost impossible to protect it from him, 
when it is cultivated as an ornament in parks, and its identity 
is known. In a more conventionalized form the inner bark is 
sold by chemists, and its properties are medicinal and nutritious. 
The tree has a fine, shapely outline, and grows rapidly. Its 

dark reddish wood is strong and 
durable and is largely used for the 
making of posts. When green it 
splits very readily. 

U. ca?npkstris, English elm, is in 
this country very frequently seen in 
cultivation and has distinctive char- 
acteristics which prevent its being 
confused with the native wild 
;.% species. Its branches are compar- 
E* atively short and grow in a hori- 
zontal or ascending line. This gives 
it^Zt camftstris, it a compact, robust look ; very dif- 





Enlarged flower. 

PLATE LVIII. SLIPPERY ELM. Ulmusfulva. 
(125) 



126 TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 

ferent from the graceful, languorous droop of the American elm. 
The leaves are smaller and grow densely on the wingless 
branches. Their upper surfaces, also, are less rough. Some- 
times for weeks after those of the native tree have fallen they 
remain fresh on the branches. The samaras of the English elm 
are smooth and without fringed margins, and its bark is very 
dark and much broken. It is not frequent that the tree es- 
capes from cultivation. 

U. subcrbsa, is a variety of the preceding species and has an 
immense amount of corky stuff on the branches. 

HACKBERRY. SUGAR-BERRY. FALSE ELM. 

NETTLE-TREE. {Plate LIX.) 

Cdtis occidentalis. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Elm. Round-topped; 15-50-140 feet. Quebec southward and April, May. 

branches, spreading, westward. Fruit: Sept. 
or pendulous. 

Bark: silver-grey or brown ; crumpled; rough. Stipules: linear; whitish, 
with a soft down. Leaves: simple; alternate; with slender, grooved petioles; 
ovate, with taper-pointed apex and one-sided, pointed, rounded or cordate 
base; serrate, becoming entire at the base. Very variable. Bright green; 
glabrous and lustrous above, paler underneath and sometimes pubescent along 
the ribs. Flowers: greenish; axillary; the staminate ones clustered; the 
pistillate ones solitary and drooping on a peduncle. Calyx: five and six 
parted. Stamens: long. Fruit: a small, globular drupe; purplish red, be- 
coming nearly black when ripe, with a thin pulp; edible; sweet. 

It is a very unusual sight to see this tree or, sometimes, shrub 
growing over fifty feet high, although at times it stretches it- 
self upward until it reaches one hundred and forty feet. Not 
long ago one was reported to measure one hundred and twenty 
feet high, and five feet in diameter at a distance of four feet 
from the ground. Its appearance was strongly suggestive of a 
very old elm. The tree is admirable for the purpose of trans- 
planting and when well developed is very effective. It grows 
rapidly and displays great endurance against dry weather or a 
long drought. The leaves in the autumn turn a light yellow. 
From its wood which is coarsely grained and rather soft a 




PLATE LIX. HACKBERRY. Celtis occidentalis. 
(127) 



128 



TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 



cheap kind of furniture is made. Celtis is the ancient name of 
the Greeks for the lotus. 



RED riULBERRY. (Plate LX.) 

Mbrus rubra. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Mulberry. Head, round, dense; 15-60 feet. Western Neiu England, Aprils May. 
branches, spreading. southward and 

westward. 

Bark : greyish brown ; rough and separating into plates. Leaves: three to 
seven inches long; simple; alternate; ovate; approaching orbicular, with 
pointed apex and rather cordate base; or frequently occurring with unequal 
lobes at the sides when the sinuses are rounded; coarsely serrate; thin ; yellow- 
green and rough on the upper surface when young, becoming dark bluish green 
and smooth; paler and downy or smooth below. Ribs: whitish and distinct. 
Flowers: growing in axillary, catkin-like spikes; either dioecious or monoecious, 
usually the latter. Fruit: similar in appearance to a long, wild blackberry; red, 
turning when ripe to a rich, dark purple ; edible ; sweet. 

A homely barnyard scene, 
where chickens and pigs rove 
about at will and a lordly tur- 
key gobbler exercises a sur- 
veillance over all, is hardly 
complete without the shade of 
a red mulberry tree. No doubt 
it has been planted there by the 
farmer or his predecessor who 
knew that its juicy fruit would 
fatten his hogs and nourish 
well his poultry. The flavour 
is a trifle insipid, but these ani- 
mals are not over discriminating and root and scratch under 
the tree when the berries are falling until the ground is often 
stained to the same deep, blood hue. The juice of the tree 
itself is milky. Horticulturists have paid little attention to 
Morus rubra as a fruit tree although it would seem as though 
it had possibilities for a better development. The tree is very 
ornamental. In early summer the green of its leaves is par- 
ticularly enchanting and can hardly fail to attract the attention 




Mbrus rubra. 




PLATE LX. RED MULBERRY. Mortis rubra 



), BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 




PLATE LXI. WHITE MULBERRY. Morns alba. 
(129) 



*3o 



TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 



rfP-T*6 



tt-: I 






of those that have an eye for colour. In their composition 
there is an abundance of yellow, and they give an effect as 
though they were continually glowing with sunshine. 

The Indians of the southern states have some way of obtain- 
ing fibres from the tree's inner bark, and these they weave 
into cloth. The wood is light yellow, soft and very durable 
when in contact with the ground. It is 
quite valuable. 

M. alba, white mulberry, {Plate LXI.) 



e5s$w$?S?^3e*3 is a similar and very familiar tree which 



is also seen about old farmhouses. It 
has escaped from cultivation. The tree 
is small and has leaves that differ from 
those of the red mulberry in being 
smooth and shiny on both sides. Its 
short, compact, staminate spikes grow on 
slender peduncles. The fruit is white 
or slightly tinted with pink and has an 
insipid, sweetish flavour. In about 1830 the tree was intro- 
duced from China, and in the old world, as is well known, its 
leaves have for a long time been fed to silkworms. 




Mbrus alba. 



PAPER MULBERRY. {Plate LXII) 

Broussone'tia papyrifera. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Mulberry. Low branching. 20-30 feet. New York southward. May. June. 

Fru it: June, July. 

Bark : light; fibrous ; rather smooth. Leaves : simple alternate ; with long, 
round petioles; broadly ovate, with pointed apex and slightly pointed or cor- 
date base, or frequently occurring with from two to three unequal lobes when 
the sinuses are rounded ; serrate ; thick ; the upper surface rough, like velvet, 
the lower surface downy. Flowers dioecious ; the sterile ones growing in 
spike-like catkins, the fertile ones in rounded heads; scaly; bristly. Ftuit : 
fleshy; not edible. 

Very frequently about old houses or in dilapidated grave- 
yards we find this tree which has escaped from cultivation. 
Its low-growing branches afford in such places a desirable 




Flowering branch . 

PLATE LXI!. PAPER MULBERRY. Broussonetia papyri/era 
(131) 



i 3 2 TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 

shade. In Japan, whence it has been introduced into this 
country, and also in China, the very fibrous bark is utilized 
to make paper and this circumstance is responsible for its 
English name. The leaves of the tree might readily be confused 
with those of the red mulberry, but its club-shaped fruit is 
quite different and is far from being edible. The tree spreads 
itself by suckers. 

BURR OAK. MOSSY-CUP OAK. OVER-CUP WHITE OAK. 

{Plate LXIII.) 
Que'rcus macrocdrpa. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Back. Round-topped, broad; 60-80-160 Maine to Penn. and May, June, 

branches, spreading. feet. westward to Montana, 

southward to Texas. 

Bark : brownish grey ; furrowed. Branchlets : marked with corky-winged 
ridges. Leaves : six to fifteen inches long: simple 5 alternate; with thick pet- 
ioles, flattened and enlarged at their bases ; obovate ; lyrately pinnatifid, with 
wedge-shaped base and from five to seven long, irregular lobes ; rounded or 
hollowed at their apexes ; entire or wavy. The sinuse of the middle lobe 
sometimes extending to within an eighth of an inch of the midrib. Dark green, 
smooth and lustrous above; silvery white and downy underneath. Staminate 
flowers : growing in slender catkins with greenish-yellow stems. Pistillate cat- 
kins: sessile. Acorns : very large; handsome. Cup: cup-shaped; covered with 
rough, pointed scales, the upper row of which terminate in long bristle points 
and form a mossy soft fringe about the nut; pubescent on the inner surface. 
Nut : orfe to one and a half inches long; oval and almost covered by the cup. 

About this noble tree there is the same semblance of strength 
and durability as is so generally associated with the oaks. It is 
one of the largest of the family of Eastern North America and 
is more widely distributed than any other, although compara- 
tively rare east of the Alleghanies. To various climatic condi- 
tions it shows much adaptability. On the prairies the " Oak 
Openings " are mostly composed of the burr oak ; and one that 
has entered them has said, " he knew not whether he shuddered 
from fear or delight." In the Mississippi basin it is commonly 
seen in lowland forests. As it occurs northward it is interesting 
to notice that the acorns become very much smaller, and as the 
length of their fringe is proportionately reduced, they cease to 




PLATE LXIII. BURR OAK. Quercus macrocarpa. 

COPYRIGHT, 1900. BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
ORINTEC .N AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 



*33 



suggest the dainty 
bird's nests that 
they do in the 
south. Hardly a 
more beautiful tree 
can be imagined in 
cultivation when 
enough room has 
been given it to 
follow its own bent 
of deveiopment. 
One then looks 
upon its great head 
and branches with 
almost a feeling of 
awe. 

As a timber tree 
it is excelled in 
value by few trees 
of North America. 
Its dark brown 




Que"rcus macrochrpa. 



wood closely resembles and is sometimes confused with that of 
the white oak, but it is superior to it in strength. 



PIN OAK. WATER OAK. SWAHP SPANISH OAK. 

{Plate LXIV.) 
Qudrcus palustris. 



FAMILY 
Beech. 



SHAPE 

Tapering towards the 

toP; lower branches, 

declined. 



HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

40-60 feet, or Mass. southward May, June, 
higher. and westward. Pruit: Sept., Oct. 



Bark: dark grey or greenish brown ; rough, with furrows that are slight 
and far apart ; the bark of the branches often cracking and showing the reddish 
inner bark. Leaves: three to five inches long ; simple ; alternate; with yellow 
petioles ; obovate ; broad ; tapering or squared at the base, and having from 
five to nine lobes which are toothed and bristle-tipped at the ends. Sinuses: 
broad ; rounded ; and extending fully three quarters of the way to the midrib ; 
bright green ; smooth and lustrous above, paler below and tufted in the 



*34 



TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 



angles of the ribs with reddish hairs. Flowers : monoecious ; the staminate 
ones growing in slender catkins; pistillate ones mostly solitary. Acorns: 
small; growing on short stems or sessile. Cup: flat; saucer-shaped; finely 
scaled. Nut: light brown; rounded; often striped ; very broad, with a thin 
shell. 




Quircus paltistris. 



The leaves of the pin oak strongly suggest to us in general 
outline those of the scarlet oak, page 244. When we come to 

examine them closely, however, we 
notice among other things that they 
are smaller and that their sinuses 
extend nearer to the midrib. These 
very differences, although they may 
seem slight, do in reality change 
the whole aspect of the trees, and 
give to the pin oak a lighter, more 
delicate appearance which is very 
pretty. When young it is tapering 
and symmetrical in outline ; but 
age seems to distort it, and it be- 
comes irregular and straggling. 
Its pendulous branches mark it distinctively. In early spring 
when the tree is blooming, its delicate maize-coloured cat- 
kins hang among the tender green leaves and sway and nod 
with them most enchantingly. In lowlands and guarding the 
borders of streams the tree is common, and it sometimes is found 
extending its roots into the river bed. In all places the tree 
has its own peculiar beauty, and it is an excellent one for plant- 
ing. In the autumn its leaves turn a deep, rich red. Its wood 
is coarse and not of any great value. It warps badly in drying. 
Galls, or oak-apples as they are sometimes called, are the 
round excrescences made on the branches of oak trees by gall- 
flies and their larvae. In some parts of New Jersey it seems as 
though they had an especial preference for this species. Often in 
the spring before enough green has been put forth to cover the 
bareness of winter it is quite pitiable to see so many galls cling- 
ing to the branches and destroying the appearance of really fine 




PLATE LXIV. PIN OAK. Quercus falustris. 
(135) 



136 TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 

trees. " That is a typical degenerate," is a criticism called 
forth by one poor tree that was almost covered with them. 
And it was so. When broken open little green worms are found 
to be inhabitants of the galls, and they seem to thrive amazingly 
well in the porous substance. 

SWEET GUM. BILSTED. ALLIGATOR TREE. STAR- 
LEAVED GUM. {Plate LXV.) 

Liquiddmbar Styraciflua. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Witch-hazel. Rounded; branches, 60-140 feet. Conn, and southern April, May. 

slender. N. Y. southward and 

westward to III. 

Bark: reddish brown ; very rough. Branchlets : usually covered with corky 
ridges. Stipules: lanceolate; entire. Leaves: simple; alternate; with slen- 
der petioles ; rounded in outline ; cordate at the base ; palmately-lobed, the lobes 
from five to seven, usually five ; finely serrate ; brilliant, smooth and lustrous 
above ; ribs tufted in their angles below. Odour : pleasant, when bruised. 
Flowers : monoecious ; the staminate ones growing in a dense terminal raceme ; 
the pistillate ones growing in an axillary, peduncled head. Fruit : a hanging 
globose ball of woody, pointed pods which open and release the few good seeds 
contained within each one. 

This most beautiful tree has many distinctive features. In 
fact it seems to have a horror of doing things after any conven- 
tional pattern. Its ideas are most chaste and original. In the 
symmetry of their form and texture the star-like leaves are per- 
fect, and the quaint balls of fruit which hang on the trees over 
the winter are most interesting. The tree is also the only species 
of this country. In the south it grows to a greater height than it 
does northward, and its spicy, fragrant gum exudes more abun- 
dantly from its bark. Amber fluid is the translation of the tree's 
generic name which was bestowed on it in reference to this 
gum or copal. It is quite valuable and is much used as a sub- 
stitute for storax. The leaves contain tannin. Every year we 
notice that this tree is being more extensively planted, and in 
beauty of outline and detail it might almost be said to be unri- 
valled. As soon as the summer has begun to wane the leaves 
turn a brilliant, deep crimson. There is a shining bright- 




PLATE LXV. SWEET GUM. Liquid ambar Styraciflua. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 




St a tn ina te flower. 

PLATE LXVI. CORAL SUMAC. Rhus Metopium. 
(137) 



138 TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 

ness about these leaves, and when a spray of them is gathered 
they bear well a close inspection ; for they are not defaced or 
worm-eaten as is so much of the autumn foliage. In fact insects 
are very shy of the tree, and borers inflict no damage on the 
wood. The brownish-red wood of the sweet gum is smooth and 
has a fine finish. It is not very strong and in drying warps badly. 
It has, however, been used as a substitute for black walnut. 

CORAL SUriAC. POISON WOOD. HOG GUM. 

(Plate LXVI.) 
Rhiis Met opium. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Sumac. 


Head, broad; branches, 
spreading or pendulous. 


20-40 feet. 


Florida and 
Florida Keys. 


April-June. 



Bark: reddish brown; separating into thin plate-like scales. Inner bark : 
orange. Branchlets : with many deep, orange-coloured excresences. Leaves: 
compound; alternate; growing near the end of the branches, with petioles that 
are enlarged at their bases; odd-pinnate, with usually five ovate leaflets rounded 
at the apex, and rounded, squared or wedge-shaped at the base; entire; thick; 
glabrous on both sides; olive-green above, paler below, the terminal leaflet 
sometimes longer than the others. Flowers: dioecious; growing in long 
axillary, erect panicles. Fruit: many deep orange-coloured drupes about half 
an inch long; obovate; glabrous; poisonous. 

About the southern keys and along the shores of Bay Bis- 
cayne in southern Florida the coral sumac is common. It is 
one of the most beautiful of all the smaller trees. In colour 
its young bark is exquisite and suggests the mellow tones of 
deeply tinted copper. Even though it is so fair, however, 
confidence in it is sadly misplaced. The breath exhaled by the 
dainty flowers is very poisonous, and its juices produce the 
same symptoms of illness as do those of Rhus toxicodendron, 
poison ivy. From incisions made in its bark an emetic and 
resinous gum is obtained which has some commercial value. 

The wood of the tree is not much used for it is rather weak. 
In colour it is dark brown and is very effectively lined with red. 




Floiver stripped of envelope. 

PLATE LXVII. WESTERN LOCUST. Robinia Neo- Mexicans 
(139) 



i 4 o TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 

WESTERN LOCUST. {Plate LXVII.) 
Robinia Neo-Mexicana. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Pea. Spreading. 10-25 feet. Colorado to New Mexico May. 

and westward. 

Bark: light brown; rough and scaly. Stipules: developing later into spines. 
Leaves : compound; alternate; with long pubescent petioles and having from 
fifteen to twenty-one leaflets; oblong-elliptical, rounded or pointed at the apex 
and rounded at the base; entire; bluish green and glabrous above, slightly 
pubescent on the lower sides of the veins and midrib. Flowers : rose colour; 
or nearly white, growing in short, compact racemes. Calyx : hairy. Corolla : 
papilionaceous, the standard low and broad. Legumes: linear; curving; 
pointed at the lower end and covered with bristly hairs. Seeds : dark brown. 

There is something particularly distinct and beautiful about 
all of the locusts ; and if we have followed only one of them in 
its course of development from the early swelling of its buds to 
the change and oxidation of its leaves in the autumn, it is only 
reasonable to feel ourselves somewhat in harmony with the 
whole genus. It then becomes a matter of intense interest to 
note the smallest variation in flower or foliage or fruit that 
aids to distinguish one species from another. 

In Colorado only, does Robinia Neo -Mexicana become a tree ; 
in other places it occurs as a shrub. Through cultivation it is 
becoming familiar, and it is quite hardy in New England. Time 
however is required for it to regard the nearness of man with 
fearlessness. Its instincts warn it, like those of the savage, to 
be on the defensive. We notice therefore that it is most 
abundantly supplied with sharp spines. Along the banks of 
wild mountain streams in its natural habitat these were its 
faithful weapons and protected its buds and bark from the 
ravages of small animals. 

AMERICAN MOUNTAIN ASH. ROWAN TREE. 
AMERICAN SERVICE TREE. {Plate LXVIII.) 

Sdrbus Americana. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Apple. Almost pyramidal^ ro-yafeet. New Foundland westward May, June. 

slender. and southward along the Fruit: Sept. 

Alleghanies. 

Bark : dull brown; almost smooth; odour, astringent. Leaves: compouiuJ: 
alternate; odd-pinnate; with red, grooved stalks and from nine to seventeen 



\> 



\ 



t> 




t m 




PLATE LXVIII. AMERICAN MOUNTAIN ASH. Sorbus Americana. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, B/ FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPAN 
ORINTEO AMERIC- 



TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 141 

almost sessile, long ovate or lanceolate leaflets, taper-pointed at the apex and 
pointed or rounded at the base. Finely serrate ; bright green above ; paler 
below and glabrous on both sides. Flowers: small; white; growing in large 
flat cymes, as many as a hundred blossoms in some clusters. Fruit: bright 
red scarlet berries about the size of large peas with a black spot at the apex. 

It is not only in the spring that there is so much of beauty 
about the trees ; although they then seem to be having their 
revel of mirth and lavishness. The autumn, with its line of 
purple in the sky, its many tinted mountains and hills, its 
richly-coloured fruits that are busy scattering their seeds, 
so beautifully fulfils the promises of early spring that there 
seems to be about it an even greater charm. But there is a 
note of sadness in the autumn, for it sings that the summer is 
past. Grim Winter is on his way, and who would stay his 
unerring step as he returns to reclaim his own ? At this season 
of the year the berries of the mountain ash are cheerful things 
to look upon. Their shower of scarlet is abundant, and they 
remain on the trees for a long time. In cultivation the tree is 
now so frequent and familiar that it is almost a surprise to 
meet it in its natural habitat. It then grows in low or moist 
ground ; sometimes even in swamps and cold mountain woods. 
An identical form of the tree occurs in Japan. 

S, sambucifblia, Western mountain ash, or elder-leaved 
mountain ash, has broader and shorter leaflets than those of 
Sorbus Americana which are doubly toothed and have blunt 
points. It also grows in moist soil. 

S. cuicuparia, Rowan tree or European mountain ash, differs 
again in having leaves that are pubescent on both sides, espe- 
cially so when young. The calyx of its flowers and the pedicels 
are woolly. 

Rowan tree as it is generally called is reported to have 
escaped from cultivation on Prince Edward Island. Just how 
it did so is not related ; but it probably hoodwinked the 
officials or tossed a sleeping draught to the gate keepers, for it 
has a long established reputation for witchcraft and the power 
to dispel evil spirits. 



142 



TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 



BILTHORE ASH. {Plate LXIX.) 
Fraxtnus Biltmoreana. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


Olive. 


Head % open; branches^ 


30-100 feet. 


Ga. to Va. y Tenn. 




spreading. 




and Ala. 



TIME OF BLOOM 
April-June. 



Upper bark: light bluish grey. Twigs: stout; velvety. Buds: dark 
brown. Leaves: two to three inches long; compound; opposite; with dark, 
pubescent petioles; with from seven to nine oval, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, 
leaflets pointed at the apex and pointed or rounded at the base; entire or 
remotely dentate; soft light green and glabrous above, lighter and velvety 
below. Samaras: large, growing three to five inches long in dense panicles; 
the wing many nerved and slightly lobed at the apex. Seeds : elliptical. 

Among the ashes there is hardly one more graceful or with 

foliage of a more sunny, ex- 
quisite green than that of the 
Biltmore ash. It is light and 
restless, and after it has faded 
and fallen the tree looks as 
though it missed it sadly ; but the 
seed pods which have then turned 
to a dull tan colour still cling to 
the tree and for a long time 
hang in great bunches upon its 
boughs as though to cheer it for 
its loss. 

The tree received its name 
from Mr. Beadle who so christ- 
ened it because it is the common 
species on the Biltmore estate. 
It there grows abundantly along the French-Broad and 
Swanona Rivers. In general appearance the tree suggests the 
white ash, Fraxtnus Americana, more than any other, although 
it may be distinguished from it by the pubescence of its twigs 
and petioles. Occasionally it grows to the height of a hundred 
feet, but when it occurs in drier soil and among the mountains 
it is generally small. 




Fraxinus Biltmoreana. 




PLATE LXIX. BILTMORE ASH. Fraxinus Biltmoreana. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
"HINTED IN AMERICA. 




PLATE LXX. WESTERN BLADDER-NUT. Staphylea Bolanderi. 
(143) 



i 4 4 TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 

WESTERN BLADDER-NUT. {Plate LXX.) 
Staphylea Boldnderi. 



FAMILY 


8HAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Staff-tree. 


Erect; branches , 
stout. 


About 3-6 feet. 


"Pacific forests." 


April. 
Fruit: July. 



Branches: reddish brown, the new growth light yellow or green. Leaves: 
compound ; opposite ; three-foliate ; with long petioles ; the leaflets broadly 
oval ; abruptly pointed at the apex, and pointed or blunt at the base ; serrate; 
glabrous. Flowers : greenish white ; perfect ; regular, and growing in drooping, 
terminal panicles. Sepals : five. Petals : five. Stamens : five ; exserted. Pis- 
til : one, with three styles. Fruit: large ; bladder-like, and containng from one 
to four flattened seed in each cell. 

To follow the woods and streams with eyes alert to all that 
is growing is to live upon the brink of discovery, and when a 
rare or unknown plant is found there is a certain dread and ex- 
citement lest one may have been deceived, and a fear that the 
illusion will be shattered by some one pointing out that it has 
been known and written about in ages past. 

The specific name of the western bladder-nut commemorates 
the collector who first discovered it growing at McCloud's 
Fork of the Sacramento River. It is one of the rarest shrubs of 
the Pacific coast ; and it is not thought that it has been intro- 
duced into cultivation. Even more interesting than the fine 
delicate flowers are the curious bladder-like seed vessels. That 
they have sprung from things so small seems indeed a mystery. 

ELDER. (Plate LXXI.) 

Sambucus Canadensis var. Mexicana. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Honeysuckle. Round-topped, 10-30/eet. Western Texas to March-July, 

compact. California. 

Bark: brownish red ; broken in horizontal ridges. Leaves : compound ; op- 
posite ; odd-pinnate ; with pubescent stalks and five ovate-lanceolate leaflets, 
pointed at the apex and wedge-shaped at the base ; sharply serrate, and be- 
coming entire at the base ; yellow-green ; thick ; pubescent along the veins. 
Flatvers: white; minute ; growing in large, flat cymes. Fruit: a blue-black 
drupe ; juicy, and having no bloom. 

There are, perhaps, few that are not familiar with the com- 
mon elder, the shrub about which cluster so many old tradi- 
tions. In western Texas, and extending to California, the vari- 




PLATE LXXI. ELDER. Sambucus Canadensis var. Mexicana. 
(145) 



146 TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 

ety called Mexicana differs from it in becoming arborescent in 
its habit. It is a very ornamental tree, free from objectional 
features, and about houses it is much planted for shade. Its fine 
light foliage makes it desirable for the purpose. The Indians 
and Mexicans assiduously gather its fruit every year and have 
many ways of preparing it as food, which, it is said, they keenly 
relish. 

S. Canad/nsis, sweet elder or elderberry, is a well known 
woody shrub, which commonly grows from five to ten feet 
high. Its flowers and cymes of deep purple fruit are possessed 
of medicinal properties. The leaves when crushed emit a 
heavy scent. 

SWEET BUCKEYE. BIG BUCKEYE. YELLOW 

BUCKEYE. {Plate LXXII) 

^Esculus octdndra. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Soap-berry. Compact; branches, 3090 feet. Along the Allegkanies April-June, 

slightly pendulous. to Ga. westward to Iowa. 

Bark : dark brown ; separating into thin pieces. Branchlets : orange-brown 
when young. Leaves : palmately-compound ; opposite, with usually five or some- 
times seven long, oval, or elliptical leaflets, taper-pointed at the apex and base; 
sharply serrate ; glabrous above and pubescent along the ribs underneath. 
Flowers: pale yellow; growing on short pedicels in close panicles. Calyx: 
oblong ; with five points. Corolla : with five petals, the lateral ones long, nar- 
row at the ends and rounded. Stamens : shorter than the petals. Fruit : a 
round, green husk ; uneven on the surface, but without prickles and enclosing 
one or two large brown nuts. 

In the outline of the buckeyes there is something particularly 
compact and well-regulated, and their symmetrical leaves 
cling together as though to shut out the intrusion of other ideas 
than their own. We can hardly fancy the boughs of these 
trees waving poetically ; they are much too conventional. The 
leaflets, as can be seen from a comparison of the illustrations, 
are very differently shaped from those of the horse-chestnut, 
which is an introduced tree. The sweet buckeye is so named 
because the odour of the meat of its nut is not peculiar like 
that of others of the genus. It is a handsome and shapely tree, 




PLATE LXXIi. SWEET BUCKEYE. Aesculus octandra. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900. BY FREOERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 



147 



and appears well in cultivation. 
In the early spring when it is 
covered with its yellow flowers 
it seems to have suddenly be- 
come quite frivolous. In the 
southwest the tree is hardly more 
than a shrub. Its wood is creamy 
white, strong, and difficult to 
split. 

A. octandra hybrida, purple 
sweet buckeye, is readily dis- 
tinguished from the preceding 
species in its season of bloom, 
as its flowers are purple or dull 
red. The leaves, also, are very Ascuius octandra. 

downy on their under surface, and the bark of the tree is lighter 
in colour. 




OHIO BUCKEYE. 



FETID BUCKEYE. 

AZsculus glabra . 



(Plate LX XIII.) 



FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Soap-berry, Spreading; branches, 18-35 feet, or Along the Alleghanies May. 

slender. higher. to Ala. and "westward. Fruit: Oct. 

Bark : grey; furrowed and separating into thin scales; odour, disagreeable. 
Leaves: palmately-compound ; opposite; with slender petioles and five or seven 
long oval leaflets, taper-pointed at the apex and base ; unequally serrate ; yel- 
lowish green above, paler below ; almost glabrous at maturity. Flowers : not 
showy ; pale yellow green ; growing in a short panicle ; pubescent. Corolla : 
with four erect and rather uniform petals having claws. Fruit: two smooth 
nuts, enclosed in a green round husk with prickles when young. 



Although this is not a common tree it has grown so exten- 
sively in Ohio that the name "the Buckeye State " has been 
the outcome. It is also hardy in New England, In low, moist 
ground and river bottom lands it finds its natural habitat. For 
almost every contrivance of man it seems as though there 




Enlarged flower. 

PLATE LXXIII. OHIO BUCKEYE. ^Esculus glabra. 
(148) 



TREES GROWING IN MOIST SOIL. 



49 



were a tree which bore the 
necessary and best adapted 
wood. Such is the provision 
and forethought of nature. 
The wood of the genus yEscu- 
lus is better than any other for 

le making of artificial limbs. 

A. Califor?iica y the California 
buckeye, is usually a small 
tree. The accompanying dia- 
gram was taken from a speci- 
men that had attained a great size and rounded, compact pro- 
portions. It bears five leaflets that are slender stalked. 




AlscuIus Californica. 



Trees Preferring to Grow in Rich Soil: 
Forests and Thickets. 

7/ was twilight in the denser woods, 

A 11 the birds had ceased to sing, 
And a wondrous stillness filled the air 

As each vine did closer cling. 

Not a leaf was stirred on all the trees, 
' Twas as though their trunks were stone. 

On the sultry air all there seemed carved ; 
Too heavy and sad to moan. 

Had the earth just rung for evening prayer, 
The twilight breeze lulled to sleep ? 

Or was it a painting, where all is dead, 
And shadows are long and deep ? 

No voice came the question to answer, 

Nor sign from the cloudless sky ; 
' Till frightened perhaps by the calmness, 

Sailed high a white butterfly. 

CUCUMBER TREE. MOUNTAIN MAGNOLIA. 

{Plate LXXIV.) 
Magnblia acuminata. 

FAMILY 8HAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Magnolia. Pyramidal, slender. 60-90 feet. Southern N.Y. south- April-June. 

ward and westward. 

Bark : dark; rough. Branchlets: pubescent. Leaf-buds: silky; pubescent. 
Leaves: simple ; alternate; petioled and scattered along the branches ; oblong, 
pointed at the apex and rounded at the base. Dark green above, lighter below 




PLATE LXXIV. CUCUMBER TREE. Magnolia acuminata. 
050 



i 5 2 TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 

and pubescent. Flowers : three to six inches in diameter ; terminal ; solitary. 
Calyx: reflexed. Corolla: pale greenish yellow; fragrant, with six large obo- 
vate, narrow pointed petals. Fruit: large; ovate ; glabrous ; becoming rose 
coloured when ripe. Seeds : orange-red and hanging when released from the 
pods by fine white filaments. 

When we wander through a strip of woodland where the soil 
is rich and the atmosphere feels as though it were a shroud of 
humid vapour, we may look about among the white ash, the 
white oak and the sugar maples for the fragrant bloom of Mag- 
nolia acuminata. But it is generally a rare find, and it is not 
sufficiently common to be much associated with the forests. Its 
growth is most luxurious in the valleys at the bases of the 
mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. At all seasons 
of the year it is a notable tree, although it can not be com- 
pared to the great-flowered magnolia, which has, however, 
attained so leading a place in beauty's ranks that it is per- 
haps unjust to use it as a standard for others. The resemblance 
of the tree's fruit when green to a small cucumber is responsi- 
ble for its English name. Magnolia acuminata has been used 
with much success as a stock on which to graft Magnolia Vir- 
ginia and the magnolias of Eastern Asia. They then grow 
more freely than when left entirely dependent upon themselves. 
The wood of the tree has been used in cabinet work ; but gen- 
erally speaking that of the whole genus, excepting Magnolia 
fcetida, is too soft and spongy to be of any great value. 

M. cordata, yellow cucumber tree, is a variety of this species 
which is widely cultivated. It is hardy as far northward as 
Boston. A most beautiful effect is produced by it when its 
lemon-coloured flowers are pushing out of the buds. 

SMOOTH AZALEA. TREE AZALEA. {Plate LXXV.) 

Azalea arboriscens. 

FAMILY 8HAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Heath. Rounded. 8-20 feet. Southern Penn. to June, July. 

North Carolina. 

Bark: dark, tinged with red. Leaves: simple; alternate; petioled ; obo- 
vate, acute at both ends, with entire margins which are delicately fringed. 
Bright green and lustrous above, paler and glaucous underneath ; in drying 
fragrant. Flowers: rose coloured or white; very fragrant; growing in terminal 




PLATE LXXV. SMOOTH AZALEA. Azalea arborescent, 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPW. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 153 

clusters and appearing after the leaves. Calyx : five-lobed ; conspicuous. 
Corolla : funnel-form with five somewhat irregular lobes ; viscid. Stamens: 
red; five; protruding. Pistil: one with a red style; protruding. Capsules: 
oblong. 

Such a wealth of beauty and fragrance is shed about by this 

lovely azalea in its season of bloom that its presence is hailed 

by every breeze that blows. Often when a strip of woodland 

is entered, and the dark trees cling together as though to shut 

out the light of day, the perfume laden air bespeaks that by 

following its guidance the azalea is to be found. Steps are 

taken and the fragrance becomes stronger. Then as a burst of 

rosy light the blossoms reveal themselves. Thousands of bees 

hum about them and guard the tree from hands that would 

carry its treasures away. Between this tree and the beautiful 

shrubs Azalea viscosa and Azalea nudiflora there is much that is 

similar, although they never become arborescent in their habit. 

Our familiarity with them, however, will help us to appreciate 

this most charming relative of the south. It has appealed 

strongly to horticulturists, and is much seen in greenhouses. 

AHERICAN LINDEN. BASSWOOD. WHITEWOOD. 
WHISTLE-WOOD. (Plate LXX VI) 

Tilia Americana. 

FAMII Y SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Linden. Rounded, tapering 6o-Zo-x2o/eet. Northward and south- May, June, 
toward the summit. ward to Virginia and 

westward. 

Bark : dark brown deeply ridged vertically, and separating into thin scales. 
Branches: light grey or brown, terminating in green. Leaves : four to five inches 
long; simple; alternate; slender-petioled ; rounded in outline with abruptly 
and conspicuously pointed apex and cordate base ; one side of the leaf gener- 
ally less developed than the other; sharply and irregularly toothed ; dark 
green, smooth and glossy above; pubescent underneath, and especially so in the 
angles of the light coloured and prominent ribs. Flozvers : cream colour ; fra- 
grant ; growing under the leaves in a cyme on a long, slender peduncle that 
hangs from the centre of the midrib of a leaf-like axillary bract which is apple- 
green, lanceolate and smooth. Sepals : five ; pubescent. Petals : five. Stamens: 
numerous, and adhering in clusters of five to a petal-like scale before each 
petal. Fruit: greenish grey; round ; downy, and resembling small peas when 
young; the style and five-toothed stigma projecting from its top. Seeds : ten. 

A bright but unfortunately unknown poet has said that " the 
loveliest rose in the world is opportunity." And it is opportu- 



154 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 



a U>s^, 




T} 






-^m^&m 



<f 



nity which we must court when studying the trees. Usually it is 

a mistake to pass one by, 
\ hk$&Ji especially when it is in 

bloom, with the thought 
that we will study it when 
later we return. Later our 
path may lead us into unex- 
pected places, where we 
shall find ourselves en- 
grossed by other things ; 
and when, perchance, we 
do return to the tree that 
we have borne in mind, we 
see that its blossoms have 
perished and a new order of 
things is in progress. 

Either in bloom or in fruit 
the American linden is an 
interesting study. It ap- 
pears to be hung with two 
distinct shades of green ; the dark green of its leaves and the 
shimmering, light apple-green of its curious bracts. The 
dainty, little blossoms fall early in the season, and their place 
is taken by many precise, pert-looking balls of fruit. They 
nod and sway with the breezes for a long time. Finally, the 
bracts lose their colour, become scale-like and gradually fall. 
The carpet they then spread under the trees and the out-flying 
ones are all that remain in the autumn to testify that anything 
unusual has occurred. 

The wood of Tilia Americana is brownish red and soft. It 
is free from blemishes and knots, and is, therefore, desirable 
to use for the panelling of carriages. Much care is necessary 
when manipulating it, as it has a tendency to crack badly. The 
inner bark is extremely tough, from it coarse rope and 

mats are made. 




Tilia A merichna. 




PLATE LXXVI. AMERICA. LINDEN. Tilia Americana. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 




PLATE LXXVII. WHITE BASSWOOD. Tilia heterophylla. 
(155) 



156 TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 

T. heterophylla, {Plate LXXVII), white basswood, linden bee- 
tree or Wahoo, differs from the foregoing species in having 
larger leaves which are covered underneath with a silvery white 
down and through which show purple ribs. This delicate fea- 
ture adds much to the beauty of the leaf. The height of the tree 
is from about fifty to sixty feet. It inhabits the mountains of 
Pennsylvania and occurs southward to Florida and westward to 
Illinois. Recently it has been found in Central New York. On 
the slopes of the mountains in Tennessee it is seen in a great 
state of development. It is always a very beautiful tree. 
Northward it is unfortunately rare even in cultivation. 

T. pubescens is again distinguished, by its comparatively small 
leaf and its thinness. Much of the pubescence which is con- 
spicuous along the ribs and in their angles is lost at maturity. 
The bracts, to which are attached the peduncles of the blos- 
soms, are sessile, and they are most often rounded at the ex- 
tremities. The tree is found growing in rich soil from Long 
Island to Florida, and westward to Texas. 

T. Europaa, European linden, is commonly seen planted about 
dwellings, and grows to a height of about thirty-five or forty 
feet. There are varieties of it which are similar to both the 
native small-leaved and large-leaved species. Their stamens, 
however, are free from scales and the trees have pyramid- 
shaped heads. 

WILD RED CHERRY. BIRD CHERRY. PIN CHERRY. 

PIGEON CHERRY. (Plate LX XVIII.) 

Prunus Pennsylvdnica. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Plum. Hearty narrow or 20-40 /*<?<?/. Northward to Ga. and A/ril, May. 

rounded ; branches^ to Iowa and westward. Fruit : June % July, 
horizontal. 

Bark : reddish brown and covered with enlarged orange-coloured dots, when 
old inclined to peel about the trunk into thin, papery sheets. Stipules: early 
falling. Leaves ; simple ; alternate, or growing in clusters of five with slender, 
grooved petioles ; oval, with pointed apex and pointed or rounded base; finely 
serrate ; netted-veined ; thin ; bright green; smooth and lustrous above; paler 




PLATE LXXVIII. WILD RED CHERRY. Prunus Pennsylvania. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 157 

below, with minute white pubescence; aromatic. Flowers: white; almost 
scentless; growing in umbels of four or five from long, slender pedicels from 
separate, lateral buds. Calyx ; with five recurved sepals. Corolla : of five 
rosaceous petals. Stamens : numerous, of different lengths. Pistil : one. Fruit: 
a light red drupe; round, about the size of a full-grown pea, and tipped with 
a remnant of the style ; sour. 

In the early spring woods, when but feeble suggestions are 
to be seen of the swelling foliage and a full-grown leaf is an 
expectation, it is very pleasant to find the red cherry. At all 
seasons of the year there is a sprightly, crisp charm about the 
tree ; but it then claims our attention as being one of the first 
that have ventured into bloom. The delicate, white blossoms 
unfold with the leaves, or when they are partly grown, and 
might almost be mistaken for belated snowflakes that are 
slowly dropping through the branches. As they fall away the 
fresh, green leaves which have been folded together lengthwise 
in the bud begin to spread themselves. They ever retain a 
wavy, curving edge. In the autumn they turn a bright yellow. 
The tree germinates readily, and its seeds are deposited by 
birds that greedily eat its fruit. In many places the red cherry 
is abundantly seen among the shrubbery of the waysides, al- 
though it then seldom attains a full development. The tree is 
short lived. In the fruit herbalists have found medicinal prop- 
erties. 

P. Mahaleb, perfumed cherry, or Mahaleb, is a small tree, or 
sometimes a shrub which is becoming frequent in this country 
along the waysides and in waste places. It comes from Europe 
where its wood is largely used in cabinet work. The particu- 
lar charm about it is the fragrance of its white blossoms. They 
grow in corymbed clusters on the young, leafy branches of the 
season, and unfold at the same time as the smooth, ovate 
leaves. The drupe is almost black and tinged with red. 




PLATE LXXIX. AMERICAN CRAB-APPLE. Malus coronaria. 
(158) 




PLATE LXXX. NARROW-LEAVED CRAB-APPLE. Mains angustifolit 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. S10KES COMPAN 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 159 

AMERICAN CRAB-APPLE. SWEET-SCENTED CRAB 

TREE. {Plate LXXIX.) 

Malus corotiaria. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Apple. Head, open ; 10-25 feet. Ontario to Mich., south- April, May. 

branches, spreading. ward to So. Carolina. Fruit: Sept. 

Bark : reddish brown, the outer layers separating into thin plates. Stipules: 
early falling. Leaves : simple; alternate ; with slender, downy petioles; ovate, 
with pointed apex and rounded or slightly cordate base. Edged toothed when 
mature, and frequently appearing as though having two side lobes. Bright 
green above; paler below; at maturity glabrous. Flowers : large; rose coloured, 
or white; fragrant; growing in loose, terminal umbels and appearing after the 
leaves. Calyx : pubescent. Corolla : of five petals. Stamens : numerous. 
Pistil: one. Fruit : a yellowish-green pome; very fragrant; and covered with 
a waxy substance ; sour. 

Who that is acquainted with the odours of nature does not 
lift his head in the air to inhale more freely the delightful fra- 
grance of this little tree and then look about to locate its 
presence ? The deeply-hued, brilliant blossoms are particularly 
lovely and enliven all the rusty and misty green tones which 
hover over the earth so early in the season. About the fruit, 
however, there is a sly deception ; it appears as though it might 
be very good and thus many are led to taste of it, when the 
disillusion is sad indeed. By a little judicious management 
housewives make it into crab-apple jelly and preserves. Cider 
also is made from the fruit. As a shrub the American crab- 
apple is rather distorted and bushy in outline; but when seen 
as a small tree in cultivation hardly one more beautiful can be 
imagined. Its fruit then becomes tinged with red and yellow. 

M. angustifolia, narrow-leaved crab-apple, {Plate LXXX.) 
differs from the preceding species in that its leaves are narrowly- 
oblong, or lanceolate. It mostly inhabits the south and west 
and, what is rather unusual from its locality, bears smaller 
flowers and fruit than the northern one. The coloured illustra- 
tion shows clearly its lovely spray of pink blossoms and its 
round, green fruit. Its wood is closely grained and heavy. It 
is made into handles for tools and into many small articles. 




Drupe, laid open. Section of flower. 

PLATE LXXXI. CANADA PLUM. Prunus nigra. 
(160) 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 161 

CANADA PLUM. HORSE PLUM. (Plate LXXXI.) 

Primus nigra. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Plum. 


Heady narrow ; branches, 


20-30 feet. 


New England to 


May. 




upright. 




Wisconsin. 


Fruit : A ugust. 



Bark : light brownish grey; thin and separating into sheets. Stipules: lanceo- 
late, or lobed and early falling. Leaves: simple; alternate, with stout petioles 
which have one or two red glands by the blade; oval; pointed at the apex and 
obtuse or slightly cordate at the base; coarsely serrate; when young pubes- 
cent and tinged with red ; smooth at maturity ; not lustrous. Flowers : white; 
turning as they fade to pink ; growing on long, reddish pedicels in lateral 
umbels and opening before the leaves. Fruit: an orange-red drupe; oval; the 
skin thick. Stone : clinging closely to the flesh. 

When this tree of the plum family is in bloom or hung with 
its translucent, radiant fruit it seems to elicit continual praise. 
In its wild state it is a thorny tree and the long spikes add much 
to its rugged, picturesque beauty. When it, however, resigns 
its cares in life into the hands of the horticulturist these thorns 
become eliminated. Their original purpose which was to pro- 
tect the fruit from the ravages of small animals is superfluous 
in the modern garden. In fact pomologists have done much in 
the way of diminishing them by budding with other stock and 
selecting buds from those branches that have the fewest thorns. 
For in cultivation thorns are no doubt an objection to a tree. 
Pickers are annoyed by them, and during wind storms they 
often puncture the fruit so as to render it unfit for the market. 
Throughout the northern New England states and in Canada 
the tree is widely cultivated, and is used as a stock upon which 
to graft the domestic plum. As is true of many of the family 
its fruit is quite prone to vary. Much of it finds its way into the 
markets. It is eaten raw by many and is excellent for stewing 
and making into preserves. 

The usual habitat of the Canada plum is in rich, alluvial soil. 
It also grows with the hawthorns in thickets, or by the borders 
of forests and occasionally in the neighbourhood of streams. 




PLATE LXXXII. WILD PLUM Prunus subcordata. 
(162) 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 163 

WILD PLUM. (Plate LXXXII.) 
Primus subcordata. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Plum. Branches, 10-25 feet. Oregon and California. March, April, 

horizontal. Fruit: A ug., Sept. 

Bark: greyish brown; rough. Branchlets : bright red and marked with 
pale lenticels. Leaves: simple; alternate, petioled ; broadly-ovate, bluntly 
pointed at the apex and slightly cordate or squared at the base ; sharply and 
singly or doubly serrate; dark green and glabrous above only slightly pubes- 
cent underneath at maturity. Flowers : growing in nearly sessile umbels and 
appearing before the leaves. Calyx: campanulate, with five pubescent lobes. 
Corolla: with five white, rounded petals. Fruit: dark bluish, red or yellow; 
somewhat acrid but pleasantly flavoured. 

About the autumn colours in Oregon, Mr. E. W. Hammond 
writes : " The wild plum sometimes becomes a small tree, but 
is seen generally as a small shrub three, four or five feet in 
height. It often sets the whole country-side ablaze in the 
autumn with the abundance of its scarlet and crimson colours, 
mingled, of course, with red and yellow, and garnished with a 
sprinkling of green." 

In bloom it is also a gay sight, as are all of its kindred when 
their showers of delicate, flake-like petals alight. In fading 
those of the wild plum turn to pale pink, and almost before the 
earth can have accustomed itself to their presence they steadily 
fall. 

The tree or shrub is full of vigour and yields in cultivation 
an abundance of fruit. Upon it several European species of 
plums have been grafted with excellent results. West of the 
Sierra Nevada mountains in California and Oregon, where 
Prunus subcordata is well known, its fruit is yearly sought and 
made into delicious jellies and jams. 

HAWTHORN. SCARLET THORN. RED HAW. 

(Plate LXXXIII.) 
Cratagus coccinta. 

FAMILY 8HAPE HEJGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Apple. Spreading: branches, 10-30 feet. New Foundland west- May. 

crooked. ward, southward to Fruit : Sept, 

Florida. 

Bark: brown or ash. colour; broken in thin plates. Branchlett : silver- 
green; glimmering. Thorns: one to two inches long; curved. Leaves: 




PLATE LXXXIII. HAWTHORN. Cratagus coccznea. 
(164) 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 165 

simple ; alternate ; slender-petioled in alternate bunches ; rounded-ovate, with 
pointed apex and pointed or slightly heart-shaped base ; sharply and unevenly 
toothed or forming small lobes ; deep green tinged with red, shining and glab- 
rous ; membranous. Flowers: large; white, pink or reddish; clustered in a 
corymb; odour, unpleasant. Calyx: urn-shaped; five-cleft. Corolla: of five 
rosaceous petals. Stamens: numerous. Pistil: one with from three to five 
styles. Fruit : bright scarlet ; ovate ; not edible. 

Among the hawthorns there are a number of beautiful trees 
with close, fine foliage and dainty, cherry-like blossoms which 
unfold an abundance of brightness in the springtime. We are 
prone to lament that the odours of many of the species are dis- 
agreeable; but this is not so without a purpose. Carrion-loving 
flies which assist in accomplishing cross-fertilization are attracted 
by this means, and the flapping of their wings makes a sonorous 
hum through the treetops. Although this tree is common 
throughout the north, it appears not to be as much found in 
gardens as formerly. Until late in the autumn the bright red 
fruit hangs on the branches. The closely grained and hard 
wood is brown with a reddish tint. 

C. macracdntha, long-spined thorn, is a similar tree to the pre- 
ceding one and has longer and brighter brown thorns which grow 
on its straggling branches. Its leaves are broadly obovate, and 
its flowers and fruit are rather small. From May until June it 
may be found in bloom. 

BLACK THORN. PEAR THORN. PEAR HAW. 

{Plate LXXXIV.) 
Crataegus tomentbsa. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Apple. Head y Jtat y broad; 8-25 Jeet. Atlantic seaboard westward M 'ay \ June. 

branches^ thick. to Missouri and Texas. Fruit: October. 

Bark: ashy grey, broken into thin scales. Young twigs: bronze-green or 
dull orange. Thorns: stout; one to two inches long. Stipules: linear. 
Leaves: simple; alternate; ovate and narrowing into a margined petiole; the 
apex pointed ; sharply and unevenly serrate, or cut to appear like small lobes ; 
thick. Upper surface greyish green, almost smooth and impressed above the 
ribs ; pubescent below when young and remaining so along the ribs. Flowers : 
numerous; white; odour, disagreeable; about one inch across and growing 
in loose corymbs at the end of the branches. Fruit: orange or dull red; oval 
or pear shaped ; about half an inch in diameter ; edible. 

Although the blackthorn has not the advantage of having its 




PLATE LXXXIV. BLACKTHORN. Cratcegus tomentosa. 
(166) 







PLATE LXXXV. DOTTED-FRUITED THORN. Crataegus punctata. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 167 

blossoms delicately tinted as those of the scarlet thorn, there are 
several other little points of distinction between them which are 
in its favour. Its flowers are larger, and its fruit is edible and 
agreeable to the taste. Perhaps its chief charm, however, is that 
the bright, cheery appearing fruit remains on the branches all 
winter, or until the leaf-buds unfold in the spring. Such a feature 
as this is much thought of when a tree is chosen to be cultivated 
for ornament. The black thorn has, it must be confessed, a 
rather changeable nature and varies greatly in the style of its 
foliage and fruit. Not infrequently it descends to a shrub. 
This may be nothing more than a clever adaptation to circum- 
stances, as it is more widely distributed through different local- 
ities than any other one of the American thorns. 

DOTTED-FRUITED THORN. COMMON THORN. LARGE- 
FRUITED THORN. {Plate LXXXV.) 

Crat&gus punctata. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Apple. Flat-topped^ \i-yzfeet. New England -westward May. 

compact. and southward to Ga. Fruit ; Sept. 

Bark : reddish brown ; rough. Thorns : when present one to two inches 
long; curved or branched. Stipules: lanceolate. Leaves; simple; alternate ; 
obovate; obtuse or slightly pointed at the apex, the base tapering and forming 
on each side a margin to the petiole ; sharply and unevenly serrate, or even 
deeply cut towards the apex, sometimes entire at the base ; thick ; light green 
and downy when young, becoming grey-green and dull at maturity and fre- 
quently remaining pubescent about the prominent ribs. Flowers: white; 
usually from eight to fifteen growing in a leafy corymb. Fruit : one-half to 
three-quarters of an inch in diameter ; yellow and dull red with white dots 
upon the surface ; slightly edible. 

A bit of personal history that is usu- 
ally quoted in connection with this 
charming little tree is that it was intro- 
duced into English gardens by the 
Duke of Argyll. And for ornamenta- 
tion hardly one more appropriate could 
have been chosen. It is of good habit in 
cultivation, and, when attention is paid 
to it, it grows very quaintly; its head 
being broad and flat. As its orange Cratkgus punctata. 





PLATE LXXXVI. COCKSPUR THORN. Cratagus Crus-Galli. 
(168) 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 



169 



and scarlet foliage falls away in the autumn its branches are 
seen to be covered with showy fruit. That they are dotted 
with white and the smaller foliage, are marks by which this one 
of the hawthorns may be known from other members of its 
family. 



COCKSPUR THORN. NEWCASTLE THORN. 

(Plate LXXX VI.) 
Cratagus Crus-Gdlli. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Apple. 


Head,Jlat^ broad; 


lo-ytfeet. 


Quebec^ southward and 


June. 




branches^ rigid. 




westward. 


Fruit: October. 



Bark: reddish brown or ash colour; scaly. Thorns: numerous; two or 
four inches long; smooth; slender; straight. Leaves: simple; alternate; 
obovate, or lanceolate; slightly pointed or rounded at the apex and tapering 
into a very short leaf-stalk at the base ; very variable in width ; unevenly and 
sharply serrate above the middle ; entire below ; thick ; dark green ; lustrous 
and glabrous above, dull underneath. Flowers : numerous ; white ; fragrant ; 
growing in corymbs from short, lateral branches and appearing after the leaves. 
Fruit : red ; dull ; globular, or slightly pear-shaped. 



Both in Europe and America this small 
tree is very generally cultivated. It is 
the favourite of the family for hedge 
planting, when its compact, thick manner 
of growth and comparatively low height 
show to great advantage. An added 
charm about it is that its bright, firm fruit 
remains on the branches over the winter. 
Birds do not devour it; nor do fungal 
diseases trouble the foliage. The tree 
has ever a fresh, invigourating aspect, 
leaves turn to dull orange or scarlet. 




Crataegus Crus-Gdlli. 

In the autumn the 




Enlarged flower. Flower laid open. 

PLATE LXXXVII. SOUR-WOOD. Oxydendrum arboreum. 
(i7o) 




PLATE LXXXVIil. WITCH-HAZEL. Hamamelis Virsriniana. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 171 

SOUR-WOOD. SORREL-TREE. (Plate LXXXVII.) 

Oxydendrum arbbreum. 

FAMILY 8HAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Heath. Oblong; branches^ \$-6o/eet. Penn. to Fla. and westward June, July, 

spreading. to Louisiana. 

Bark : grey tinted with red ; deeply furrowed. Leaves : five to seven inches 
long; simple; alternate; slender-petioled ; ovate, with pointed apex and 
pointed or rounded base; finely serrate ; lustrous ; becoming glabrous at matur- 
ity; sour to the taste. Flowers: white; scented like honey; growing in long, 
terminal, one-sided clusters at the end of leafy shoots. Calyx : five-toothed. 
Corolla : urn-shaped ; five-toothed ; pubescent. Stamens : ten. Pistil: one. 
Capsules : growing in long, drooping clusters ; pyramid-shaped ; five-valved. 

In the same way that Browning has said that all that books 
can teach us is to do without them ; so it matters not so much 
what we learn about the trees as it does what we see and find 
out for ourselves. And there is always an individual impression 
to be received from them by those that have any keenness of 
sensibility. But unfortunately many take their enjoyment 
very dolefully and would think it the height of levity to indulge 
any fanciful ideas the trees might suggest. Again many are 
not in the habit of watching the trees as they come into bloom, 
and for them to find the sour-wood hung with its delicate 
sprays of flowers so suggestive of the lily-of-the-valley must in- 
deed be a revelation. To be able then to inhale to the fullest 
its beauty and its honey-like scent is a good gift of Providence. 

The wood of the tree is hard and closely grained and is of 
service in many ways. One extensive use to which it is put is 
the making of handles for tools. 

WITCH-HAZEL. {Plate LXXX VIII.) 
Hatnamelis Virginiana. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Witch-hazel. Head, open, broad; 8-30 feet. Nova Scotia southward A ug.-Dec. 

branches, spreading. to Florida and Texas. Fruit: spring. 

Bark: brown; smooth; falling in thin scales. Inner bark: purplish red. 
Stipules: lanceolate. Leaves: simple; alternate; with short, stout petioles; 
obovate ; pointed or rounded at the apex, unequal at the base ; coarsely and 
irregularly serrate; frequently entire below the middle. Dull green above, 
lighter coloured and pubescent underneath; slightly astringent. Flowers: 
bright yellow ; growing in axillary clusters on short peduncles. Calyx : four- 



172 TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 

parted, with bractlets underneath; inner surface orange-brown; pubescent. 
Corolla : bright yellow ; of four almost linear petals, often twisted and falling 
with the stamens. Fruit : a woody capsule, with orange-brown, pubescent 
seeds. 

This dainty shrub is one of the unconventional spirits of the 
woodlands and pays the penalty for its vagaries by having at- 
tached to it the reputation of witchcraft. It is very slow about 
ripening its fruit. Throughout the autumn and winter the 
calyx-lobes protect the ovary which does not begin to enlarge 
until the following spring. The fruit of one year, therefore, 
attains maturity at the same time that the flowers of the next 
year are opening. When the pods burst open they cast forth 
their seeds with astonishing force and to a great distance from 
the plant. To the North American Indian we undoubtedly owe 
the first knowledge of the efficacy of its bark for the curing of 
inflammations. It has for a long time been distilled in alcohol 
to make Pond's extract. A strange thing about it is, however, 
that chemists have failed to discover in it any " active medicinal 
properties." 

Green hazel wands were for a long time used by the credu- 
lous to locate, through their supposed power of witchcraft, the 
presence under ground of gold or of springs of water. A forked 
branch was twisted between the fingers and thumbs of both 
hands, and the direction in which it pointed was taken as 
an indication of where the desired metal or water should be 
sought. The popular name of the plant is an outcome of this 
practice. Although we are accustomed to seeing Hamamelis 
Virginiana as a shrub, it becomes arborescent on the high 
slopes of the Alleghany mountains in North and South Carolina 
and in Tennessee. Its wood is reddish brown quite hard and 
closely grained. 




PLATE LXXXIX. AMERICAN CHESTNUT. Castanea dentata. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. i 73 

AMERICAN CHESTNUT. (Plate LXXXIX.) 

Castanea dentdta. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Beech. Round-topped; 5080 feet or higher. Southern Maine to June, July, 

branches, spreading. Fla. and Tenn. Sept., Oct. 

Bark : granite-grey ; ridged, but smooth in young trees. Leaves * simple ; 
alternate; with short petioles; oblong-lanceolate; pointed at both ends or 
rounded at the base ; feather-veined ; coarsely serrate; the ribs terminating in 
the sharp, bristle-pointed teeth of the edge. Sinuses: rounded. Dark green 
above, lighter coloured below; glabrous. Sterile flowers: yellow; sweet- 
scented; growing in slender, axillary catkins; fertile ones, about three or four 
in each involucre. Fruit: growing in a green, prickly husk, which opens in 
four sections and discloses three or four ovoid nuts, flattened on one or both 
sides; brown, and tipped with a white remnant of the style. Seldom more than 
three fully developed; edible ; sweet. 

" Under a spreading chestnut tree 

The village smithy stands ; 
The smith, a mighty man is he, 

With large and sinewy hands; 
And the muscles of his brawny arms 

Are strong as iron bands." 

Fortunate, indeed, was the good smith immortalized by 
Longfellow to be able to cool himself from his labours at the 
forge under the voluminous, kindly shade of the chestnut tree. 
It has, perhaps, the heart of a humanitarian. Country urchins 
surely forget the need of money when they find, after a light 
frost, the ground covered with its inviting nuts, and many a be- 
grimmed Italian is consoled by them for the fortune he expected 
to find in the new world. Early and late in the autumn we see 
these men standing on the streets of the cities making with 
their time-worn knives a cross upon the nuts, and then roasting 
them in their little machines. Although they are smaller than 
the nuts of the European varieties, their meat has a sweeter 
flavour and a finer grain. Owing to their small size, however, 
the labour of preparing these native chestnuts for cooking is 
considerable, and this is perhaps the reason that chestnut 
purde and pudding are not so frequent in this country as they 
are in Europe. 

The tree at all times is an imposing and beautiful object. 



174 TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 

It seems as though every one should know its tall, column-like 
shaft, its dense, characteristic foliage, and its quaint fruit. It 
grows very rapidly. Although durable when in contact with 
the soil, its reddish-brown wood is not strong, and warps badly 
when it is dried. 

C. Pumila, Chinquapin, {Plate XC.) is a shrub or small round- 
topped tree which grows on rich hillsides, in swamp borders or 
even in dry soil, from New Jersey southward and westward. 
Its leaves are oblong, feather-veined and conspicuously ser- 
rate. On the under surface they have a dense, white fuzz. In 
the burr there is but one ovoid nut, or, very rarely, two. The 
meat is very sweet, and they are sold in large numbers in the 
streets and markets of the southern and western cities. To 
this fruit ancient writers have referred as being "a great 
daintie." 

AMERICAN BEECH. {Plate XC/.) 

Fagus Americana. 



FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Beech. Round-topped ; 50-70-120 feet. 


Nova Scotia to Fla. 


April, May, 


branches, horizontal. 


and westward. 


Sept., Oct. 



Bark: light bluish grey; smooth. Leaves: simple; alternate; with very 
short petioles; ovate; oblong; with pointed apex and rounded or narrowed 
base. Ribs : straight, unbranched and terminating in the remote teeth. 
Fringed on the margins with soft, white hairs which soon fall; glabrous. Slam- 
inate flowers : clustered on drooping peduncles. Pistillate ones: two only and 
terminating a scaly bracted peduncle. Fruit : a pair of three-sided nuts, with a 
sweet and edible kernel which grows within a four-celled, prickly burr splittng 
when ripe midway to the base. 

It is fortunate that there is no one type of tree which may 
alone be regarded as beautiful. Beauty is truly, as has been so 
justly and often said, in the eye of the beholder. By many the 
American beech is thought to be the most lovely of all trees. 
Its train of admirers are quite as ardent about it as those of the 
American elm, the sugar maple, the gum tree, and many others. 
Certainly in the spring when it is covered with its staminate 
blossoms it is a splendid sight, and its perfect leaves are sel- 
dom spotted or eaten by insects. In the winter, also, it is par- 




PLATE XC. CHINQUAPIN. Castanea pumih 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 175 

ticularly interesting. Its beautiful bark then appears very 
bright, and after its fine leaves have fallen, although many of 
them, pale and dried, cling to the branches throughout the 
winter, the structure of its massive head is seen to advantage. 
Of all the trees of America it is one of the most widely dis- 
tributed. In the Canadian markets and those of many of the 
middle and western states, its nuts are sold in considerable 
quantities. Although the reddish and closely-grained wood 
of the tree checks badly in drying and is difficult to season, 
it is still a valuable article of commerce. Shoe lasts are made 
from it, and pulleys and handles of tools; chairs and milking 
stools also are often made of beech wood. 

F. sylvatica, the European beech, is planted in this country, 
and was for a long time confused by early travellers with the 
American species. It may be known by its broader leaves with 
their strongly crenate edge and with the abundance of fine 
hairs on their under surface. Often not until November do 
these leaves begin to show their golden colour and gradually 
to turn to russet-brown. On the ground as they fall they make 
a fresh, thick bed. The American beech is then completely 
stripped of its foliage. 

F. sylvatica foliis atrorubentibus, the beautiful copper beech, 
with its shimmering masses of richly hued foliage, is a variety 
of the preceding species. Although the little chlorophyll grains 
which contain the green colouring matter of the foliage are 
present and no doubt working away quite busily in these leaves; 
there is probably some strong pigment in the leaf-sap which 
overpowers them and thus gives its own deep, rich colouring 
to the foliage. 

CANOE BIRCH. PAPER BIRCH. WHITE BIRCH. 

(Plate XCII.) 
Bitula papyrifera. 

FAMILY 8HAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Birch. Pyramidal ; branches^ 40-70 feet or Northern Penn. Aprils May. 
pendulous. higher. northward. 

Bark of trunk : chalky white; smooth and disagreeable to the touch; tough; 
durable, and readily peeling from the wood; in its turn it separates into many 



176 TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 

thin papery sheets, which are faint red in colour and marked with short, dark 
lines. Leaves: simple; alternate; with downy petioles; ovate; with pointed 
apex and rounded, wedge-shaped, or sub-cordate base; doubly and unequally 
serrate; dark green and smooth above; dull below and pubescent in the angles 
of the straight ribs. Flowen: monoecious; growing in slender, cylindrical and 
scaly catkins. Strobiles : growing on slender stalks ; the wings of the minute 
nuts broad and often fringed. 

Happily the canoe birch wears a uniform that we all know ; 
and when many of the trees are seen from afar, amid the 
dark shades of the forest, they appear not unlike the advancing 
guard of a regiment. There is about them the same air of 
distinction from all that surrounds them. The tree seems 
to belong especially to the primitive people of the north, 
who must surely regard it with affection. The Indian's birch- 
bark canoe carries him swiftly and silently over the water as he 
perchance guides it by a paddle made from the wood of the 
tree. When the streams are frozen and the covering of the 
earth is as white as the birch's bark, he is drawn on sledges or 
glides along on snow shoes that are alike constructed in part 
from the tree. From rough weather his wigwam is also pro- 
tected by its resinous bark, and when the sweet sap begins to 
flow in the springtime he knows how to boil it into a syrup or 
make it into a cooling drink. Of his life the tree is a part, and 
from the standpoint of sentiment it seems as though it should 
be left to the Indian rather than given over to lumbermen who 
sell it for the making of shoe lasts, pegs and fuel. Tourists 
inflict great damage to the appearance of the tree by tearing 
off its bark, as its peculiarity of peeling horizontally is well 
known. In the mountainous regions of the north it is frequent 
on wooded slopes or often by the borders of streams. 

That Hiawatha's request comes so spontaneously to the mind 
in connection with the tree seems to accentuate the Indians' 
vital love and knowledge of it. 

" Give me of your bark, O Birch-Tree I 
Of your yellow bark, O Birch-Tree, 
Growing by the rushing river, 
Tall and stately in the valley ! 




PLATE XCI. AMERICAN BEECH. Fagus Americana. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 177 

I a light canoe will build me, 
Build a swift Cheemaun for sailing, 
That shall float upon the river, 
Like a yellow leaf in Autumn, 
Like a yellow water-lily ! 

" Lay aside your cloak, O Birch-Tree 1 
Lay aside your white skin wrapper, 
For the summer-time is coming, 
And the sun is warm in heaven, 
And you need no white-skin wrapper I 

And the tree with all its branches 
Rustled in the breeze of morning, 
Saying with a sigh of patience, 
" Take my cloak, O Hiawatha ! " 

SWEET BIRCH. BLACK BIRCH. CHERRY BIRCH. 

{Plate XCIII.) 
Be'tula Unta. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Birch. Rounded; branches^ 30 Zo/eet. New Foundland to Ontario April y May. 
slender. southward and westward. 

Bark: dark; rich brown ; smooth but becoming rough as the tree grows 
old; not subject to peeling. Branches: reddish; smooth; and covered with 
white wart-like dots; sweet; aromatic. Leaves : simple; alternate ; with short, 
downy petioles ; ovate, with pointed apex and rounded or cordate base ; finely 
and doubly serrate ; ribs, straight ; vivid, green and glossy above ; dull and 
pubescent below but becoming smooth. Flowers : growing in catkins and 
appearing before the leaves. Staminate ones: golden ; long. Pistillate ones : in 
dense, shorter catkins. Strobiles: dark green ; sessile ; with rounded and 
lobed scales. Nut : obovate. 

When we go among the trees and perhaps rest for awhile under 
the shade of the sweet birch, we might, if our ears were sufficient- 
ly quickened, hear many tales of country-lore that are passing 
through the swish of its leaves. Tales are astir about the evil 
spirits that seek it and greedily devour its sweet bark. To their 
hearts gratitude is unknown. The tree could tell also of many 
that love the shimmer of its leaves ; that notice the golden pollen 
in its beautiful spray of staminate blossoms and partake of its 
shade as graciously as though they were accepting a gift from a 
friend. The subtle instinct of the urchin, for surely he never 
learned from botany how good to the taste were its twigs, leads 




Flowering branch. Fruiting branch 



Scale of fruit. Nutlet. 

PLATE XCIII. SWEET BIRCH. Betula lenta. 
(178) 




PLATE XCII. CANOE BIRCH. Betula papyrifera. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, 8/ FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTEO IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 179 

him to spend many an hour under its shade. He chats to his 
companion about his struggles with the trout or of the mischief 
the squirrels have done to the leaf-buds, and he prides himself 
upon locating a borer as surely as he can scent the advance of 
spring. The sweet birch knows too the stride of the axe-man ; 
for its fine, dark reddish wood is valuable. It receives a beau- 
tiful polish and is strong and heavy. As a substitute for black 
cherry it is made into furniture. In fact the appearance of 
the tree is such that it might readily be mistaken for a cherry 
tree. Birch oil which is an important article of commerce is 
distilled from the foliage and graceful branches of the tree. It 
is the same as the oil of wintergreen which is taken from the 
quaint little plant, Gaultheria procumbens. 

YELLOW BIRCH. GREY BIRCH. {Plate XCIV.) 
Betula Iktea. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Birch. Pyramidal; branches^ 40-90 feet. Neiv England south- Aprils May. 

long, slender. ward to Tenn. 

Bark: light yellowish grey; marked horizontally and separating and peel- 
ing like shavings. Both the bark and the greyish-brown twigs have a slightly 
aromatic sweet taste. Leaves : simple; alternate; with slender downy, petioles, 
often in pairs ; ovate, with pointed apex and narrowed and rounded or rarely 
sub-cordate base, coarsely and unequally serrate ; ribs, straight and conspicuous. 
Dull green above, downy below and becoming smooth at maturity. Staminate 
catkins: yellowish green ; three to four inches long. Pistillate catkins : short; 
sessile. Nuts: oval ; broad; wider than the wings. 

It is frequently said by many that they never notice the 
bark of a tree or its leaves ; that it appeals to them entirely 
by its general outline and presence. Again others observe 
these things almost to the exclusion of the individual character 
of the tree. The bark of the yellow birch, however, is one 
that should attract the attention of all ; for it is particularly 
unique and beautiful. It is golden with a silver sheen and the 
separating shreds curl about it like the ribbon decorations of 
some fantastic lady. An air of delicacy also makes the tree 
quite distinctive from those among which it grows. 

In Canada and New England this birch is one of the largest 




Fruiting branch. 



Flowering branch. 



PLATE XCIV. YELLOW BIRCH. Betula lutea. 
(i 80) 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 181 

trees that are not evergreen, and there, as in New York state, 
it is valued for its excellent timber. The light reddish-brown 
wood has a fine, satin-like surface and is considerably made 
into furniture, boxes and many small articles. It is also used 
for fuel. As the tree occurs southward it is small, or it becomes 
a shrub. A large amount of moisture is required by it that it 
may thrive well. 

HAZEL-NUT. FILBERT. (Plate XCV) 

Cdrylus Americdna. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Birch. 


Broad, spreading. 


4,-1 feet. 


Maine westward and to 
Fia. and Texas. 


March, April. 
July, August. 



Branches : greyish or pinkish brown. Twigs : pubescent, with pinkish hairs. 
Leaves : simple ; alternate ; with hairy petioles ; ovate or almost rounded, with 
pointed apex and slightly cordate or blunt at the base; irregularly and doubly 
serrate ; dark green and almost glabrous above, paler and pubescent beneath. 
Staminate catkins: long; solitary. Fruit: growing in the base of an involucre" 
which is composed of two broad, leaf-like bracts, extending far above the nut 
and deeply cut at the top ; green ; pubescent. Nut : golden brown ; almost 
round ; shell, hard. Kernel: edible ; sweet. 

Nutting days are truly among the best of all the year, and 
who that has been brought up in the country cannot recall 
some dense thicket or low stone wall by which these bushes 
grew. The filberts, as the nuts are often called, yield up 
readily their treasures. One sharp blow on the smooth shell 
will sever it in two, and the round, solid meat then rolls inno- 
cently out. It has only to be picked up and eaten. 

One of the first signs that the season is advancing is to find 
the hazel catkins hanging loosely and with their stigmas well out. 
They then soon shed abundantly their pollen. Even during 
the winter the staminate flower-buds shine brightly on the 
bushes; but the demure pistillate ones lie hidden under their 
scaly buds. They cling mostly, however, to the summit of the 
branches where the golden dust can find them and the long 
rays of sunshine linger upon them lovingly. 




Buds, catkins and /ruit. 



PLATE XCV. HAZEL-NUT. Cory I us Americana. 
(182) 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 183 

BEAKED HAZEL-NUT. {Plate XC VI.) 

Cdrylus rostrata. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Birch. Erect, stiff. 4-8 feet. Nova Scotia southward Aprils May. 

and westward. Fruit: Aug., Sept. 

Branches: light brown; glabrous or often pubescent; slender. Twigs: 
nearly glabrous. Leaves: simple; alternate; with slender petioles; ovate, 
or ovate-oblong; pointed at the apex and slightly cordate or blunt at the base; 
doubly serrate; bright green above; glabrous; paler underneath and nearly 
glabrous; thin. Staminate flcnvers : growing in catkins ; the single flowers un- 
der each bract with four stamens divided so as to produce eight anthers. Pis- 
tillate flowers : growing in dense spikes and having two flowers under each scale. 
Fruit: growing in the base of an involucre which is prolonged into a curved 
tube, cut at the summit and covered with bristly yellow hairs. Nut : brown; 
ovoid or ovate. Kernel: edible; sweet. 

Especially when in fruit is this species of hazel-nut readily 
distinguished from the common one ; for although they both 
have strangely fashioned involucres that of Corylus rostrata 
extends into a long, curious beak, and is moreover covered with 
reddish tipped bristles which, when the nuts are being gathered, 
penetrate the skin as readily as spun glass. This involucre is 
indeed a most interesting contrivance. Its future existence, 
as can be seen under a microscope, is foretold by a tiny ring 
about the young ovary. Small as it is, it has a strong deter- 
mination to grow and develops to some extent even when one or 
neither of the pistillate flowers has been fertilized and there- 
fore does not proceed to grow. This seems to be mere presump- 
tion on its part; as its field of usefulness does then not exist, 
and it but raises false hopes in the hearts of those seeking the 
nuts. How much more are those appreciated that practice no 
deception, but at maturity split open as though proudly to 
show the fruit they have guarded. 

LARGE-TOOTHED ASPEN. POPLAR. {Plate XC VII.) 
Pdpulus grandidentata. 

FAMILY 8HAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Willow. Heady narrow; branches, 40-80 feet. Nova Scotia southward March, April, 
crooked and spreading. to North Carolina 

and Tenn. 

Bark: dark, reddish brown; irregularly furrowed; when young, greenish 
grey. Leaves: simple; alternate; broadly ovate: with short-pointed apex and 




Involucre of nut. Pistillate Jlo-wer. 

PLATE XCVI. BEAKED HAZEL-NUT. Corylus rostrata. 
(184) 



Staminate and pistillate branches. 




Enlarged fruit. 

PLATE XCVH. LARGE-TOOTHED ASPEN. Populus grandidentata. 

(i85) 



186 TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 

rounded or squared at the base ; coarsely and irregularly dentate, the sinuses 
rounded; ribs, distinct; dark green above; paler below and covered when young 
with a silky wool ; glabrous at maturity ; the petiole flattened. Flowers: dioe- 
cious ; growing in long, often curving catkins ; the scales of the staminate ones 
from five to six-cleft, sparingly fringed. The staminate trees bloom earlier 
than the pistillate ones. 

As the specific name of this tree implies, its characteristic 
feature is the large, coarse teeth of its leaf margins. And the 
link of kinship between it and the delicate Populus tremuloides 
is discernible even through the ruggedness of its foliage. As 
the young leaves of the poplars unfold they have all a silvery 
sheen that in the case of the willows is golden. Their 
innumerable seeds also, when they begin to unloosen them- 
selves from their long clusters and fly about, tint the tree and fill 
the air with a silvery whiteness. In the autumn the leaves of 
this species turn to such a clear, bright yellow that a luminous 
glow is radiated by the tree to a considerable distance. We may 
seek to find it in the deep, rich soil of woods or approaching 
the borders of swamps. 

The wood of Populus grandidentata is soft and not generally 
regarded as being of much value. It is made into wood-pulp 
and later into paper. 

TULIP TREE. WHITE-WOOD. [Plate XCVIII) 

Liriodhtdron Tulipifera. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Magnolia. Tall, rounded; branches^ 60-190 feet. Vermont and Rhode May. 

spreading. Island to Florida Fruit: Sept., Oct. 

and westward. 

Bark : reddish brown or grey ; furrowed. Branches : curved and marked 
with narrow rings ; aromatic. Leaves : simple ; alternate ; long petioled ; very 
broadly ovate or nearly orbicular ; broadly notched at the apex, rounded or 
cordate at the base and having four or more lobes, the sinuses between them 
rounded. Dark green and shiny above, paler below. Flowers ; two inches 
high ; cup-shaped ; erect and growing on stout peduncles. Petals : obovate ; 
greenish yellow ; orange coloured within. Segals: reflexd. Stamens : numer- 
ous and growing in ranks upon the receptacle. Pistils : growing in a column- 
like body upon the receptacle. Fruit : about three inches long, a cone of dry, 
oblong and acute carpels. 

There is something to make one tremble in the gigantic 
proportions, the tall, column-like trunk and the strangely cut 





V +JL. 




3fc# 




^^^. ^^BMHBH i Jf a "'* 










: 

| ::: i 




j -J 






1 .:.4^4ffc!& , 


--'": 



PLATE XCVIII. TULIP TREE. Liriodendron Tultpifera. 

COPYRIGHT, 1S00, Br FREDERICK A. STOKE* COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 



187 



leaves of this tree when it is approached for the first time, 
and the fancy is bred that the world would be a very different 
place if trees should ever lose 
their meek defenselessness and 
strut about arranging things 
to suit themselves. Man 
would appear very small then, 
while the tulip tree might be 
the king of the globe. It is a 
tree that at all times is readily 
recognised; but in the spring, 
when it is covered with its 
tulip-like flowers, it is truly a 
surprising sight. As freely 
and unconsciously the great 
structure throws out its bloom 
as though it were some lively, 
wayside flower. From the col- 
oured illustration the imagina- 
tion can picture the effect so 
great a number of the flowers 
would produce. In cultiva- 
tion the tree is a great favour- 
ite and has, especially when 
young, a high-bred expression. 
It is hardy, grows rapidly and becomes without doubt one of 
the largest and most beautiful of the American forest. Often 
when growing in the " open " it is clothed to the ground. As 
a timber tree it is valuable, and is well adapted for making the 
curved panels in carriages. By the aborigines it was used for 
the frames of their canoes. In many parts of the South the 
name yellow poplar clings to the tree. It originated because 
the leaves have long petioles that aid them to tremble in the 
wind. It is however not a desirable one and should be rejected. 
At Craggy Mountain, twelve miles north-east of Asheville, 




Liriodendron Tulipifera. 



i88 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 



North Carolina, there is standing a tulip tree that is thought 
to be the largest one in America. In girth it is thirty-one feet 
at a distance of ten feet from the ground, and it stands up- 
wards of one hundred and fifty feet high. In that rugged 
place, at an elevation of three thousand feet above the sea 
level, it raises a clear and straight shaft which is also hollow. 
What is the tree's history, no one knows. 



WHITE OAK. (Plate XCIX.) 

Quircus alba. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME*OF BLOOM 

Beech. Head, broad; 60-80 feet or Maine to Ontario and May, June, 

branches, spreading. higher. southward and westward. Fruit: Sept., Oct. 

Bark: light grey or nearly white ; less rough than that of most oaks ; often 
scaly in old trees and breaking off in thin sheets. Leaves : 4 simple ; alternate ; 
obovate ; pinnately-lobed, wedge-shaped at the base and with from three to 
nine lobes ; broad and rounded, with coarsely notched or entire edges. Sinu- 
ses : narrow ; rounded. Bright green above, paler below; at maturity glabrous ; 
variable. Acorns : axillary ; growing in pairs on short peduncles, or sessile. 
Cup : saucer-shaped ; shallow; rough, with appressed scales. Nut: green, 
turning to chestnut-brown ; lustrous ; oblong, from three-quarters to an inch 
long ; edible ; sweet. 

The ancients made oak trees 
objects of love and reverence, and 
they also attributed to them the 
mystic power to foretell or advise 
about coming events. The oldest 
oracle of the Greeks was that of 
Jupiter at Dodona in Epirus. It 
was believed that two black doves 
simultaneously flew from Thebes in 
Egypt. One alighted in an oak 
grove at Dodona and in a human 
voice proclaimed that an oracle of 
Jupiter should there be established 
by the people. The other dove 
carried a similar message to the temple of Jupiter Ammon in 
the Lybian oasis. Accordingly, the oracles were set up, and 




Qu/rcus dlba. 




PLATE XCIX. WHITE OAK. Quercus alba. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 189 

the priests in the temples interpreted the responses that were 
conveyed to them by the motion of the trees in the wind. 
The lover in Tennyson's English Idyll, " The Talking Oak," 
exclaims in gratitude for the knowledge it has told him of 
his sweetheart Olivia and in reference to the ancient oracle : 

M And I will work in prose and rhyme, 

And praise thee more in both 
Than bard has honour'd beech or lime, 

Or that Thessalian growth, 
In which the swarthy ring dove sat, 

And mystic sentence spoke ; 
And more than England honours that, 

Thy famous brother oak, 
Wherein the younger Charles abode 

Till all the paths were dim, 
And far below the Roundhead rode, 

And humm'd a surly hymn." 

Hercules we must also remember carried an oaken club. 

Of the genus, Quercus alba is one of the most stately. It 
seems odd, in earliest spring to see the great, grey thing 
putting forth leaves as tender tinted and pink as many a shy, 
woodland flower. In their second childhood, that is, in the 
late autumn, the leaves again become a ruddy hue, deep and 
vinous ; and after withering, drop from the trees at the be- 
ginning of winter. Throughout their course of existence they 
are very variable on different trees, and often two or three 
distinct forms are presented. 

The white oak is one of the very valuable timber trees of 
North America and is imported as staves in large quantities 
to Europe. In ship-building and in the manufacturing of car- 
riages it has an important place. 




PLATE C. RED OAK. Quercus rubra. 
(190) 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 



191 



RED OAK. (Plate C.) 

Quircus rubra. 



FAMILY SHAPE 

Beech. Round-topped: 
branches, stout. 



HEIGHT 
50-80- 1 50 feet. 



RANGE 

New Brunswick south- 
ward and westward. 



TIME OF BLOOM 

May, June. 
Fruit: Oct., Nov. 



Bark : reddish brown, smooth for an oak, but rough and broken into scale- 
like plates. Leaves : simple ; alternate ; with smooth, yellowish-green petioles 
from one to one and a half inches long and oblong or obovate, rather rounded 
or wedge-shaped at the base and having from nine to thirteen lobes which are 
irregularly toothed and bristle-tipped at the ends ; the sinuses between them 
narrowed, rounded and extending about half-way to the midrib. Dark green 
and glabrous on the upper surface, pale yellow-green below with rust-coloured 
hairs in the angle of the ribs; thin. Statninate flowers: growing in long, pubes- 
cent catkins. Pistillate ones : growing on glabrous peduncles. Acorns : grow- 
ing on a short, thick neck or almost sessile. Cup : flat ; saucer-shaped ; finely 
scaled. Nut ; sometimes an inch long ; ovoid ; bitter. 

When the red oak is seen growing in favourable circum- 
stances the effect that it produces is admirable. Usually 
its foliage is dense, but about 
it there is no semblance of 
heaviness. So small a thing 
as that the lobes of the leaves 
are unequal in size and have 
bristle-pointed teeth is quite 
sufficient to give to the great 
tree a light, pleasing appear- 
ance. But in outline the 
leaves are very variable. They 
turn in the autumn to a deep 
red or orange and are quite 
without the brilliancy that is 
associated with the scarlet 
oak, page 244. The acorns 
are a good index to the spe- 
cies; for the nut looks wonder- 
fully large and out of propor- 
tion to the shallow cup. They 
are among those that require 
two years in which to mature 




Quercus rubra. 

The reddish-brown wood of 



192 TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 

the tree is coarsely grained and thought, in the east, to be of 
comparatively little value on account of its porous texture. As 
it occurs westward, however, it is often found to be of better 
quality. In cooperage it is used and also to make clap-boards. 

At Thornedale, at Millbrook, N. Y., there is to-day standing 
a red oak, the girth of which is twenty-two feet and four 
inches at a distance of about five feet from the ground. It is 
a venerable tree and remains like a great, green, trembling cloud 
upon the landscape. " It was here in father's time, and his 
father knew it for many years," is said of it, and its age is 
estimated to be somewhat over two hundred years. 

For the reason that the red oak adapts itself readily to vari- 
ous climatic conditions it has been much planted. In Europe 
it has thrived better than any other one of the American 
species, many being there on record that are over a century old. 

u Then here's to the oak, the brave old oak, 
Who stands in his pride alone ; 
And still flourished he, a hale green tree, 
When a hundred years are gone ! " 

H. L. Chorley. 

FLOWERING DOGWOOD. CORNELIAN TREE. 

{Plate CI.) 
Cdrnus fldrida . 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Dog-wood. Rounded; branches^ \z-qofeet. New England to Minne- April-June. 

spreading. sola and westward. Fruit: October. 

Bark : blackish or dark red-brown ; roughly ridged. Leaves : simple ; oppo- 
site ; petioled and mostly clustered at the ends of the branches ; elliptical, with 
pointed or taper-pointed apex and pointed base, often unequal at the sides. 
Entire ; netted-veined ; with whitish and distinct ribs ; bright green above, 
glabrous or slightly pubescent ; paler underneath and pubescent. Flowers: 
green ; tiny; perfect; growing in a rounded, central cluster and surrounded by 
a showy involucre of four white, obcordate, petal-like bracts, notched at the 
apex and tinted with pink. Fruit : an oval bunch of bright red, ovoid berries. 

" Where cornels arch their cool boughs 
o'er beds of wintergreen." 

Bryant. 

There are a few among us that do not know and appreciate the 




PLATE CI. FLOWERING DOGWOOD. Cornus florida. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BV FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 




PLATE CI I. ALTERNATE-LEAVED DOGWOOD. Cornus alternifolia. 

(193) 



i 9 4 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 






beauty of the dogwood when its bloom whitens the woods and 
banks in early spring. The snowy involucre of the flowers un- 
folds before the leaves are fully developed and can therefore 
be seen from a great distance waving 
its cheery message. Spring has re- 
turned, it proclaims, and this is a story 
that never grows old. The foliage of 
this tree also contributes much to the 
brilliancy of the autumn colouring. 
Then little birds are seen capering in 
and out among its gay leaves and 
alighting on twigs that bend low with 
the weight of their round, plump bodies. 
They greedily eat the fruit and are 
good agents in distributing its seeds. 

In the south, Cornus florida attains more ample dimensions 
than it does northward, where it frequently occurs as a shrub. 
Country people watch the tree with especial interest, for it is 
credited with coming into leaf at just the right time for plant- 
ing Indian corn. The bitter bark of its roots contains a powerful 
substance similar to quinine, and it is used as a tonic. The 
wood is closely grained and strong, with a beautiful surface 
like satin. 




Cdrnus ftdrida. 



ALTERNATE-LEAVED DOGWOOD. CORNEL. {Plate CI/.) 

Cdrnus alternifblia, 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Dogwood. Flat-topped, 10-30 feet. New Brunswick westward and May, June. 
bushy. southward along the Alleghanies. Fruit: Oct. 

Bark: reddish brown; smooth, or broken irregularly in narrow ridges. 
Branches: yellowish green; smooth, and streaked with white or light brown. 
Leaves : simple ; alternate ; slender petioled, and crowded near the ends of the 
branches; elliptical; entire; yellowish green and glabrous above; paler and 
slightly pubescent underneath between the curved ribs. Flowers: small; cream 
coloured ; growing in flat, open cymes, and having no involucre. Calyx : with 
four, minutely-toothed sepals. Corolla : of four white, lanceolate petals. Sta- 
mens : four. Pistil : one. Fruit : many dark blue berries, growing on reddish 
petioles. 

There is a freshness and vigour about the leaves of this dog- 




PLATE Clll. CATALPA. Catalpa Catalpa. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, 8Y FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 195 

wood which can hardly fail to impress us, and they have a 
strange little way of puffing up in places as though the type of 
conventional flatness had been routed from their household. 
Popularly, it has been stated that a first glance at this tree is 
prone to give rise to just a little uncertainty as to whether its 
leaves are opposite in growth or alternate. The specimens, 
however, that were examined to aid in writing this description, 
had no such pernicious inclinations to lead one astray. The 
growth of their leaves was all distinctively alternate. The 
blossoms have no beautiful involucres as have the flowering dog- 
woods, but a pretty showing is made by the many, tiny flowers 
that are crowded together in the cymes. In the autumn the 
foliage turns to yellow and scarlet, and the bright blue berries 
dangle from coral-coloured stems. 

C. circinata, round-leaved dogwood or cornel, does not attain 
a dignity beyond that of a shrub of from three to ten feet high. 
Its branches appear to be covered with warts, and they are 
streaked with white or green. The leaves are opposite, oval 
and pubescent underneath. The flowers grow in very dense, 
flat cymes. In almost any kind of soil the shrub will grow, 
although it clings with some persistence to the edges and paths 
of woods. From its bark cornine is largely extracted. 

C. stolonifera y red-osier dogwood and C. candidissima, panicled 
dogwood, are both conspicuous shrubs along streams and in 
damp thickets. The twigs of the former species are bright ref* 
those of the latter are ashy in hue. 

CATALPA. INDIAN BEAN. CANDLE-TREE. 
BEAN TREE. (Plate CIII.) 
Catdlpa Catdlpa. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Trumpet-creeper. Head, broad, rounded ; 20-30-40 Gulf states June, July. 

branches, spreading. feet. northward. Fruit: Sept., Oct. 

Bark: dark grey; broken into small, flaky pieces. Leaves : simple; oppo- 
site ; with long, round petioles ; broadly ovate, pointed at the apex or rarely 
three-lobed, and slightly cordate at the base ; entire ; light green above and 
glabrous; pubescent underneath, especially so along the ribs; peculiarly 




196 TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 

scented. Flowers: white, mottled with purple inside and spotted with yellow; 
fragrant ; growing in an erect, terminal panicle. Calyx: irregular, or two- 
lipped. Corolla : campanulate; two-lipped, with five spreading, crimped lobes. 
Perfect stamens: two; rarely four in two pairs. Sterile stamens: three; rarely one. 
Pistil: one. Pods : six to twelve inches long; linear; hanging, and containing 
winged and fragrant seeds. 

The catalpa, as the aborigines called it, is one of our most 
attractive trees, and it is now much seen throughout the middle 
states. Before being so widely natural- 
ized it was confined to the south. Until 
taken in the hand and closely inspected 
the beauty of its blossoms is hardly appre- 
ciated. But many of our choicest exotics 
are not more exquisite. The broad, 
vivid green leaves form for them a plain 
and artistic background. Within the pear- 
shaped, glossy and reddish buds these 
lovely blossoms are compressed into 

Catdlpa Catdipa. \ , . , , 

round balls, in much the same way that 
an accordion is folded together. It is quite interesting to 
press a large bud between the thumb and fingers, when it 
will divide into the two-lipped calyx, and the petals can then 
be stretched out to their fullest extent. When they are allowed 
to unfold naturally the stamens and pistil are the first to push 
themselves upward from their cramped position, and as they do 
so they bear along with them the pliable corolla. Its lobes are 
the last of all to open and admit the insects within its richly 
coloured centre. The crinkling of the lobes is a feature that 
the flower never loses, and which is owing to their former posi- 
tion in the bud. The pods, especially those of young trees in 
cultivation, grow very long. When they have become dried and 
brown, little country boys are credited with finding them good 
to smoke. Their flavour, however, is very strong, like that of 
weeds, and they burn the throat most horribly. 

C. speciosa, larger Indian bean, often reaches one hundred and 
twenty feet high and has longer pods than the preceding one. 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 197 

It is a more valuable species but is seldom found outside of 
its natural range which is in the vicinity of southern Illinois 
and the neighbouring states. Its bark and seeds are used 
medicinally. 

SUGAR riAPLE. HARD HAPLE. ROCK HAPLE. 

SUGAR-TREE. {Plate CIV) 

Acer Sdccharum. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Maple. 


Dome-like^ 


30-120 feet. 


New Foundland southward 


April, May. 




rounded. 




and westward. 


Fruit: Sept. 



Bark : light grey ; rather smooth, becoming rough and scaly with age. 
Leaves : simple ; opposite ; with long petioles ; rounded in outline, squared 
or cordate at the base, with three, five or seven coarsely cut and sharply pointed 
lobes, the lower pair smaller than the other three, and at times, entire; sinuses, 
rounded. Rich green and glabrous above, lighter below and pubescent, espe- 
cially so along the ribs. Flowers: greenish yellow; growing on drooping 
pedicels in sessile, abundant corymbs, and appearing with the leaves. Calyx : 
bell-shaped ; fringed. Petals^: none. Samaras : greenish yellow ; drooping 
on slender, hairy pedicels ; th'e wings broad and slightly spreading ; about one 
inch long. 

This is one of the very 
good trees. It is so perfect 
in outline, so beautiful and 
useful. Perhaps it is most 
widely known through its 
sap, from which is made the 
main quantity of maple 
sugar. A square block of 
this well-known article of 
commerce, however, can 
hardly disperse the same 
love that is felt for the tree 
by those living in its neigh- 
bourhood, and who look 
eagerly forward to the time 
when sugar is made. Then 
is the tree's yearly festival. Jeer sdccharum. 





Enlarged flower. Samara. 

PLATE CIV. SUGAR MAPLE. Acer Saccharum. 
(198) 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 199 

In earliest spring, as soon as the sap begins to flow freely, the 
trees are tapped, and a wooden quill or trough is inserted in 
the openings At its other end is placed a bucket. The sap 
then is averted in its upward course and directed into the 
trough from where it trickles slowly down into the bucket. 
About seventy drops fall every minute, that is, under favour- 
able circumstances and when the tree is well warmed by the 
sunshine. This flow of the sap continues about three weeks. 
There is then a gathering of the country about to enjoy the 
" sugaring off," Great fires are built in the woods, and over 
them kettles containing the sap are hung. This is the signal 
for a general frolic among the girls and men of the village, al- 
though stirring, tasting and sampling the syrup are not forgot- 
ten. It must be taken from the fire at just the time that it has 
turned to sugar. In certain parts of the country as in Ver- 
mont, where the making of maple sugar is a large industry, it 
commands great attention and is done after the most scientific 
methods. In New York state there is a belt which includes 
Schoharie, Otsego and Delaware counties and embraces Wayne 
and Susquehanna counties in Pennsylvania that is yearly be- 
coming more famous for its production of maple sugar. In 
fact, the last census shows the yield to be a little below one hun- 
dred thousand pounds. A tree of average size produces yearly, 
it has been estimated, from four to eight pounds of sugar. 

The wood of the sugar maple is more valuable than that of 
any other of its genus. It is reddish brown, heavy and strong, 
and capable of receiving a high polish. From it shoe lasts, 
pegs and a large amount of furniture are made. When it is 
burned for fuel its ashes even are valuable, for they contain a 
considerable amount of potash. 

Bird's-eye maple and curled maple are so called from differ- 
ent conditions of the wood which arise from peculiar undula- 
tions of its fibre. 

A. nigrum, black sugar maple, often grows along streams or 
inhabits river bottom lands. It is known from the preceding 




Enlarged flower. 

PLATE CV. STRIPED MAPLE. Acer Pennsylvania*. 
(200) 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 



201 



species by its almost black bark and the formation of its leaves, 
which is, however, very variable. Usually the lobes are severely 
cut and have few or no teeth. The sinuses are long and nar- 
row, and on both sides the leaf is of the same colour. Even 
when old it retains a soft down underneath. When tne base of 
the leaf is heart-shaped the lobes not infrequently overlap 
each other. Of the samaras, the wings are rather wide, but 
hardly more so at the bottom than at the top. From the sap 
of this tree also sugar is made. 



STRIPED MAPLE. GOOSEFOOT MAPLE. MOOSEWOOD. 

{Plate CV.) 
Acer Pennsylvdnicum. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Maple. Slender; branches^ 10-35 feet. Nova Scotia -westward, May, June, 

upright. southward to Georgia 

and Tennessee. 

Bark: reddish brown or greenish ; conspicuously striped longitudinally with 
lines of pale blue; smooth, and having upon it rough excrescences. Leaves: 
large ; simple ; opposite ; with stout, grooved petioles ; rounded or cordate, with 
three lobes above the middle ; sinuses pointed ; finely and doubly serrate. Glab- 
rous above and below, slightly pubescent when young. Flowers ; yellowish 

the 
iters 
Samaras: pale green, with widely diverging wings ; glabrous. 



leaves 



green; growing in terminal, drooping racemes and appearing after 

have unfolded. The sterile and fertile flowers grow in different clusters on the 



same tree. 



Dame Nature was surely in one of her jocund moods when 
she gave so many fine little touches to the 
striped maple. The bud-scales are very 
attractive, and as the leaves unfold in the 
springtime they cover the tree with a burst 
of faint rose colour. Its racemes of delicate 
flowers sway in the tree like tassels. The 
brilliancy of its green garb and the gay 
yellow tint to which it turns in the autumn, 
make it one of the most beautiful trees in 
cultivation. In outline its leaf has been 
thought to suggest a goose's foot from the 
way in which it widens towards the summit and divides into 




Acer Pennsylvdnicum. 



202 TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 

three well-cut lobes. The peculiar vertical marking of the 
trunk is also a beautiful and characteristic feature and makes 
it easy for us to retain our friendship with the tree during the 
winter. The striped maple is a shrinking character and loves 
to hide itself under the shade of larger trees. It frequently 
occurs as a shrub. In fact in New England it forms an 
immense amount of undergrowth. To it are sometimes 
attached the names of false, or striped, dogwood. Its name of 
moosewood was bestowed on it because in early spring deer 
browse on the young shoots, that they may enjoy its sugar-like 
sap. 

riOUNTAIN MAPLE. (Plate CVJ.) 
Acer spicatum. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Maple. Slender x tapering. xi-Tp/eet. New Foundland westward May, June. 

and southward to N. 
Carolina and Tenn. 

Bark ; brown or greenish ; not striped. Leaves; three to five inches long; 
simple ; opposite ; rounded in outline, with three or rarely five lobes, pointed 
at the apex and coarsely serrate. Above glabrous ; pubescent underneath 
when young ; soft ; flexible. Flowers : greenish yellow ; growing in erect, 
dense clusters and unfolding after the leaves. Petals; linear; spatulate. 
Samaras ; growing in clusters from nine to ten inches long, the wings diverg- 
ing at right angles. 

It is always a source of wonderment why Acer spicatum re- 
mains so persistently under the shade of other trees. It could 
well defy the full light of day that might fall 
upon it in an open place, for it is very beauti- 
ful. At the north it rarely occurs as other 
*-* than a tall shrub and clings to the rich woods 



s^w^my^ * 

&%z/a3tZ& or crows bv well-shaded roadsides. 







grows by well-shaded roadsides. In the 

coloured illustration the delicate samaras of 

&^JftiL$jjK^ tne mountain maple are seen wearing their 

\ ^ fresh, green tint of youth. Later, in the 

JL autumn, they turn to brown. The foliage then 

Acer spicatum. becomes a brilliant red or a clear, deep orange. 

It is to the maples, we should remember, that we owe the 




PLATE CVI. MOUNTAIN MAPLE. Acer spicatum. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 




PLATE CVII. FALSE SYCAMORE. Acer Pseudo-Platanus. 
(203) 



20 4 TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 

greater part of the glorious colouring of the autumn. The 
individual trees remain ever true to their colours and turn 
every year to the particular ones that they have chosen. 
A beautiful sight is to see two different maples standing closely 
together when one has changed to scarlet and the other to 
clear, bright yellow. 

A. plantanoides, Norway maple, is one of the introduced 
maples with which we are becoming familiar along drives in 
parks and in general cultivation. It is a handsome tree, 
rounded in outline and with broad, thin and smooth leaves, 
which must luxuriate in the wealth of light and sunshine they 
are capable of absorbing. In shape they are similar to those 
of the sugar maple ; the lobes however are short, five to seven 
in number, and have from two to five sharply pointed teeth. 
The corymb-like clusters of fruit are a distinctive feature, the 
wings being frequently two inches long and diverging so as 
to form almost a straight line. Another mark of the tree's 
identity is that the leaf-stem contains a milky juice. 

A. Pseudo-Platanus (Plate CVII.), false sycamore, is another 
European species that is extensively 
planted for ornament in this country. 
Its beautiful, firm leaves have very 
long, red petioles and five short lobes 
which are coarsely and irregularly 
toothed. The sinuses are pointed. On 
the upper surface the leaf is a rich 
green, but underneath it is a much 
lighter, softer colour. In its fruiting 
j^V season the tree is hung with a Ions: 

Acer Pseildo-Platdnus. . & . f 

raceme of pubescent samaras with 
wings that diverge widely. 

A. Jap6nicu?n atropurpureum, blood-leaved Japanese maple, is 
one of a number of dwarf maples which is mentioned here 
because it is now becoming frequent in cultivation. It is 





PLATE CVII I. LOCUST TREE. Robtnia Pseudacacia. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, SY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY, 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 



205 



extremely beautiful with rich wine-coloured foliage and a 
graceful manner of growth. 



LOCUST TREE. 



YELLOW LOCUST. 

(Plate CVIII.) 
Robinia Pseudacacia. 



FALSE ACACIA. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Pea. 


Head, narrow, oblong; 


40-50 or 80 


Penn. southward to 


May, J une. 




branches, erect. 


feet. 


Ga. and westward. 


Fruit: Sept. 






Bark: reddish brown; rough and broken in ridges. Stipules: linear and 
later developing into spines. Leaves: compound; alternate; with leaf- 
stalks that are hollowed at the base and which cover the buds of the suc- 
ceeding year ; odd-pinnate, with from eleven to twenty-five oval leaflets; rounded 
at both ends and occasionally tipped with the end of the midrib; entire ; net- 
ted-veined ; glabrous ; when unfolding covered with a silvery pubescence. 
Flowers: white ; fragrant ; growing in loose, axillary racemes. Calyx : five- 
toothed. Corolla: showy ; papilionaceous; the standard yellow at the base. 
Legumes: linear; glabrous and containing from four to six brown seeds. 
They remain on the trees over the winter. 

u The slender acacia would not shake 

One long milk-bloom on the tree. 
The white lake-blossom fell into the lake 

As the pimpernel dozed on the lea ; 
But the rose was awake all night for your sake, 

Knowing your promise to me ; 
The lilies and roses were all awake, 

They sigh'd for the dawn and thee." Tennyson, 

It is not only when the bright sun of 
mid-day is shining that trees are well 
seen. On some tranquil night in early 
summer, lit by a bright moon, the 
locust tree is clearly defined as it rises 
to its stately height and casts about its 
fantastic shadows. Its clusters of 
moving, sensitive blossoms also appear 
to be thrown into prominence by the 
dimness of other things. It is then 
free from the labour of digesting and 
assimilating the sap, which work it 
does in the_ sunshine, jind calmly leans 





Pistil. 



PLATE CIX. 



CLAMMY LOCUST. 
(206) 



Robinia viscosa. 




.ATE CX. ROSE ACACIA. Robtnia kispidu 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, 8Y FKEDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 






TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 207 

upon the cool night breezes. The luscious honey scent the 
flowers cast about is one of its most seductive charms. There 
is in the southern part of New Jersey an avenue of these trees 
which for many generations was the admiration of those that 
passed beneath them. Then a certain borer, called painted cly- 
tus, found them out and set about the poor work of destruction. 
Such ravages have thus been made among these trees that to-day 
many of them are but dark, uncanny stumps with a mass of 
suckers growing from their tops. Now and then one is seen 
that has for some reason been less molested than the others, 
and it stands out as though to testify to the departed glory of 
its comrades. In fact, away from its native forests it is almost 
impossible to protect the tree from such damage. This is 
unfortunate, as its beauty has caused it to be perhaps more 
planted in Europe and in America than any other tree. 

The wood of the locust tree is very valuable. It is closely 
grained, heavy and especially strong when in contact with the 
ground. Above all others it is preferred for the making of 
treenails, and it is used for posts in vessels and for the masts 
of ships. Long ago its excellence was known to the Indians 
of Virginia, and from it their bows were constructed. 



CLAMMY LOCUST. {Plate C1X.) 

Robinia viscbsa. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Pea. 


Slender; branches, 
spreading. 


30-40 feet. 


Virginia to Georgia. 


June. 



One of the differences between this species of Robinia and 
the preceding one is that its rough leaf-stems and branchlets 
are clammy. Then it is a smaller tree and sometimes descends 
to a shrub of from five to ten feet high. Its pink flowers grow 
in erect or drooping, compact racemes. They are very show r y, 
but their colour hardly compensates for the sweet scent and 
more graceful growth of the flowers of Robinia Pscudacacia, 
Still it is one of our most rare and beautiful trees, and it is to 
be lamented that it does not occur more generally in a wild 



2o8 TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 

state. It seems, however, to have a natural taste for luxury. 
From the mountains of Carolina, where it is particularly charm- 
ing, it has escaped, and it is seen in cultivation throughout the 
Middle and Eastern States and in Canada. Its legumes are 
linear-lanceolate, and they are slightly tipped with a vestige of 
the style. 



ROSE ACACIA. BRISTLY LOCUST. IIOSS LOCUST. 

(Plate CX.) 

Robinia hispida. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Pea. Slender^ spreading. yio/eet. Virginia southward. June. 

Bark of branches: Purplish. Leaves: compound; alternate; with leaf -stalks 
that are hollowed at the base and which cover the buds of the succeeding 
year; odd-pinnate, with broad leaflets, tipped with long bristles. Flowers: 
large; showy; deep rose colour and growing in rather loose racemes. Corolla: 
papilionaceous ; the standard large. Legumes: linear, and covered with bristles. 

A glance at this lovely plant is enough to cause it to be asso- 
ciated with the family to which it belongs, although it is the 
one that is shrubby in its habit of growth. When in bloom it 
is a soft, brilliant sight, and the papilionaceous corolla 
reminds us strongly of many of our wild flowers. 

" Is it a tree," a little child asked with amazement, " or is it 
a big flower ? " 

By plucking one of its leaves it is seen that it takes the same 
precocious care of its offspring as is customary with other 
members of the genus. The base of the long stalk is hollow, 
and nestling cosily within its centre is the young bud of the 
next season. Here it is as completely sheltered and hidden 
away from harm as though a little house were built about it. 
Throughout the northern states we are now accustomed to 
seeing the shrub, as it is widely cultivated for ornament. 




PLATE CXI. HONEY LOCUST. Gteditsta Iriacanthos. 



COPYR'GHT, 1900, BV FREOERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 



209 



HONEY LOCUST. THREE-THORNED ACACIA. HONEY 

SHUCKS. {Plate CXI.) 

Gledltsia triancdnthos. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Senna. Irregular. ys-i^o/eet. Western N. Y. southward May \ June. 

and westward. 

Bark: grey and rough, with small scales at the base of the trunk. The 
young branchlets reddish brown and having upon them wart-like excrescences. 
Spines : two to four inches long; twice or thrice branched and curved at the 
base. In very young and old trees they are sometimes absent. Leaves ; com- 
pound; alternate; with long, downy petioles; abruptly pinnate, or twice 
pinnate with from ten to twenty-six or more long, oblong leaflets tapering 
towards the apex and rounded at the base; entire or slightly toothed; dark 
green and lustrous above, yellow green below; glabrous; thin. Flowers: 
greenish white ; growing in narrow racemes. Calyx : three to five cleft. 
Corolla : with from three to five narrow, spreading petals. Legumes: nine to 
twenty inches long; reddish brown; flat; linear; curved and containing 
between the seeds a sweet substance which has suggested the name of honey 
locust. 

It seems as though there 
were no motion quite as un- 
dulating and graceful as 
that of a tree with an abun- 
dance of fine foliage. This 
the honey locust has, and 
about it there is something 
very interesting. As though 
to atone for the fact that 
its leaves are abruptly pin- 
nate, a growth never as 
pleasing as when they are 
terminated by an odd leaf- 
let, or by a tendril, the end 
leaflet often again divides 
itself, and the leaf becomes 
twice pinnate. In this way 
it satisfies its desire for a 
mass of fleecy, light foliage. 
Growing on the branches 
just above the axils of the leaves, or where the leaflets grow 




<-5T 



Gleditsia triancdnthos. 



2io TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 

in little clusters, the long, sharply-pointed and richly-coloured 
thorns appear. But they are not more curious to look at than 
are the great pods which hang on the tree late in the season. 
One is really inclined to wonder where they came from. As they 
twist themselves like corkscrews in drying they produce an 
eccentric effect. This is not their object, however ; they have 
simply devised this plan as a means of securing a wider dis- 
tribution of their seeds. 

The tree is now widely planted throughout the north, and it 
is often chosen to form hedges. That it withstands the on- 
slaught of insects and grows rapidly from the seed are strong 
points in its favour. It comes into leaf, however, late in the 
spring when nearly all the other trees are already clothed with 
verdure. 



AMERICAN YELLOW-WOOD. KENTUCKY YELLOW- 
WOOD. {Plate CXJI.) 

Cladrdstis littea. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Pea. Head, broad; branches, 30-50 feet. Eastern Ky. to Tenn. May \ June, 

spreading. and North Carolina. 

Bark: silvery grey; close, something like that of the beech. Branches: 
ashy. Leaves: compound; alternate; with stalks that are hollowed at their 
bases and enclose the buds of the succeeding year; odd-pinnate; with from 
seven to eleven oval or ovate leaflets ; pointed at the apex and rather blunt at 
the base; entire; light green above; lighter below; glabrous. Flowers: white; 
fragrant; hanging in full, terminal panicles often a foot or more long. Corolla: 
white; papilionaceous; the standard large and turned backward. Fruit: 
many linear flat pods which hang from short peduncles and contain from four 
to six seeds. 

There is something mystical about the great bunches of this 
tree's flowers when they unfold, and a strangeness lurks in 
seeing things so purely white hanging from its boughs. When 
the sun shines upon them after a shower, they sparkle as with 
innumerable drops of crystallized dew, and tiny, round specks 
of reflected sunshine gleam over their white petals. It is inter- 
esting to notice their colours. Sometimes they blend crimson, 




PLATE CXII. AMERICAN YELLOW WOOD. Cladrastis lutea. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 




TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 211 

yellow and green. The crimson tint is bordered with grey, and 

the green sinks away into a deeper blue. 

Every season there are flowers to be 

seen on the tree, although it is only 

on alternate years that it throws out 

its full wealth of bloom. More than a 

fortnight they seldom last, and in warm 

weather hardly as long. In cultivation 

it would be difficult to imagine a more 

beautiful, low-growing tree than the 

yellow-wood ; for besides its flowers, 

its foliage is extremely graceful and ciadrdstis lutea. 

changes in the autumn to various tints of gold. 

The wood of Cladrastis lutea is light yellow and brittle. In 
fact its branches are very prone to break when they are struck 
by a high gale of wind. 



KENTUCKY COFFEE-TREE. STUMP TREE. (Plate CXIII.) 

Gymndcladus diolca. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Senna. Head, narrow; 4080-110 /If*/. N.Y. and Penn. south- May-July. 

branches, ascending. ward and westward. Fruit: Sept., Oct. 

Bark: grey, tinged with red; coarse; rough and separating into persistent 
scales. Branches: few and having no thorns. Stipules : lanceolate. Leaves : 
one to three feet long; unequally twice-compound; alternate; odd-pinnate; 
with from seven to thirteen leaflets on each division of the blade; ovate; 
taper-pointed at the apex and rounded or cordate at the base; entire and 
fringed about the margins. Dark green and glabrous above, pale yellow-green 
below and slightly pubescent along the ribs. Flowers: white; dioecious; 
growing in racemes along the branches. Legumes: large; six to ten inches 
long, and broad; reddish brown; flat; glaucous and containing several hard 
and grey seeds. 

It is a pleasure to feel that we know just what to expect 
from trees that they are not with every return of the season 
presenting us with new fashions. We may have noticed that 
the late, unfolding leaves of the Kentucky coffee-tree are pink, 
and that as they become more accustomed to the world they 



212 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 




Gymndcladus diolca. 



turn to a bronze-green. In the au- 
tumn they again change to bright, 
clear yellow. Nor is it only in one 
particular year that these colours 
succeed each other. At whatever 
time we return to the tree, no matter 
how long afterwards, we shall find 
it telling the same story. A spray of 
its doubly-compound leaves readily 
adapts itself to conventional design- 
ing. The curved pods remain un- 
opened on the boughs throughout 
the winter, when the tree has a la- 
mentably dead and stump-like look. 
Their seeds were at one time used 
to make a beverage which was 
thought to be something like coffee. 



BLACK WALNUT. (Plate CXIV.) 
Jitglans nigra. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Walnut. Rounded; branches, 30-60-150 feet. Mass. southward April, May. 

very thick. and westward. Fruit: October. 

Bark : blackish; rough ; broadly ridged. Twigs : pubescent. Leaves : com- 
pound; alternate; with stalks from one to two feet long, which are slightly pubes- 
cent ; odd-pinnate, with from thirteen to twenty-three leaflets; ovate- 
lanceolate; taper-pointed at the apex and rounded or slightly cordate at the 
base; the sides often unequal, and the lower pair of leaflets smaller than the 
others; sharply toothed; yellowish green above and glabrous, paler below and 
pubescent. Fruit: large ; globose; solitary; the husk greenish yellow when 
ripe and dotted with brownish red; spongy and decaying to release the nut. 
Nut: black; deeply and sharply furrowed, and containing a rich, highly 
flavoured kernel. 

It has been estimated that fully one hundred years are re- 
quired for this tree to attain the ample proportions necessary 
for a valuable timber tree. Then the axeman who long has had 
his eye on it, lays low the result of its patient, unerring growth. 
How pathetic is this defenselessness of the tree against man ! 




PLATE CXIII. KENTUCKY COFFEE TREE. Gymnocladus dioica. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 



213 



Long before him it knew the 
earth, and it has outgrown him; 
but meekly it falls before his 
will. So great has been the 
demand for the beautiful, dark 
brown heart-wood of the black 
walnut that it may now almost 
be said to no longer exist in 
the American forests. And 
many of the trees that are ap- 
proaching a marketable size 
have already been bought " on 
the stump " by lumbermen. 
Those trees that Once covered 
vast tracts of forest land in 
the Mississippi basin are now 
no more, and east of the Alle- 
ghany mountains they are also 
scarce. During the civil war 




Juglans nigra. 



gun stocks were largely made of the wood of the black walnut, 
and trees were not planted to replace those that were destroyed. 
As we all know, the meat of the nuts has a fine, rich flavour ; 
but it is somewhat difficult of access, as it is most skilfully 
fastened within the shells. In cultivation the tree has a sombre 
aspect, and it is unfortunate that the fall web-worms eat so 
ravenously its foliage. 



BUTTERNUT. WHITE WALNUT. OILNUT. (Plate CXV.) 
Jiiglans cinerea. 



FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE 

Walnut. Unsymmetrical ; branches, 30-50-100 New England south- 
horizontal, feet. ward to Ga. and 

westward. 



TIME OF BLOOM 

May. 
Fruit: Oct., Nov. 



Bark : light brown ; deeply ridged. Branchlets : light grey; rough. Twigs ; 
sticky. Leaf-buds; scaly; pubescent. Leaves: compound; alternate; with 
pubescent and sticky stalks; odd-pinnate, with from eleven to seventeen long, 
oval, sessile leaflets, taper-pointed at the apex and rounded at the base ; sharply 



2i 4 TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 

and unevenly serrate; yellowish green above, underneath extremely pubescent. 
Flowers : monoecious. Staminate catkins : growing from axillary buds. Their 
flower bracts clothed during the winter with tomentum ; pubescent. Pistillate 
flowers : six or eight, growing in terminal spikes, and covered with sticky hairs. 
Fruit: growing in a husk from two to three inches long ; oblong; pointed; green 
or greenish brown when ripe; sticky, and decaying away from the nut that it 
encloses. Nut; ovate ; with a rough, furrowed shell, and sweet, highly flavoured 
kernel. 

As is often true of trees that come into leaf late in the season, 
the butternut is one of the first to take offence at Jack Frost; 
and that he may not further wound it by his familiarity, its 
leaves drop silently to the ground very early in the autumn. 
At all times the leaves of the tree are rather scarce, and its 
exposed grey limbs present an unkempt appearance. So much 
yellow is mixed with the colouring of the foliage that, while the 
effect is peculiar, it robs it of all look of vigour. The trees 
remind us of plants that have been too much in the shade. 

But how insignificant are such points as these to the country 
boys and squirrels that know the tree by its fruit. And how 
sweet and tender is the young meat, only those know that have 
braved the staining of fingers and have pounded the husks open 
on some near-by rock. Perhaps the taste of the woodlands 
still clings to them, for they are seemingly very different 
when bought at the market. 

The wood of the butternut is light brown and beautiful. 
Among other things it is used for cabinet work. 

riOCKER-NUT. WHITE-HEART HICKORY. 
FRAGRANT HICKORY. {Plate C XVI.) 

Hicbria dlba. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Walnut. Head, rounded, narrow; -jo-ioo/eet. New England south' May, June. 

branches, spreading. ward to Fla. and Fruit: Oct., Nov. 

Texas and westward. 

Bark: light grey; rough, but close; not broken into scales. Leaf-buds: 
large; round, and covered with yellowish-brown scales. Leaves: compound; 
alternate; odd-pinnate; with rough stalks and from seven to nine long, oval, al- 
most sessile leaflets, taper-pointed at the apex, and wedge-shaped or blunt at 
the base; the lower pair of leaflets smaller and broader than the others. 
Slightly serrate with blunt teeth; above deep yellowish green, paler and pubes- 




r,.,.. .',..., 



BLACK WALNUT. Juglans nigra. 

P, 1900, SV FREOEWICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTEO W AMERICA. 




Pistillate flower^ 
enlarged. 



PLATE CXV. BUTTERNUT. Juglans ctnerea. 
(215) 



216 TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 

cent underneath; fragrant when dried. Nut : one and a half to two and a half 
inches long; greyish white, and growing in a thick green husk, which splits 
when ripe nearly to the base into four sections; ovate; rounded; pointed at the 
top; six-angled, with a hard and thick shell. Kernel : small; sweet, but not 
highly flavoured. 

It is true that the fruit of this tree is one that mocks. Its 
large size and fresh, wholesome look lead many to seize it as 
though with a promise of finding abundant meat. But a series 
of disappointments is consequent. The husk of the nut is un- 
usually thick, and the shell is thick; so when found the poor 
little meat seems not to compensate for the trouble it has given, 
especially as it is indifferently flavoured. To follow the 
changes of colour of the tree's large leaf-buds is interesting. In 
the winter their yellowish-brown scales forsake them, and they 
become covered with those that are hard and greyish. It is not 
well to be conspicuous late in the season when delicate, green 
food is scarce; for there are hungry marauders about then as 
well as in the summer time, although not perhaps of the same 
class as the beautiful but terrible creature which is seen in the 
coloured plate. 

Of all the hickories this one is the most generally known 
throughout the south. It grows also in the Atlantic states and 
in Canada, but in these latter places it is rather rare. In the 
rich soil of woods, or upon hillsides and ridges it is found. 
The timber that the tree produces is very similar to that of the 
shag-bark hickory. 

SHAG-BARK HICKORY. SHELL-BACK HICKORY. 

WHITE WALNUT. {Plate CXVII.) 

Hicbria ovata. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Walnut. Conical: head, narrow; 50-90-120 feet. Southern Maine May. 

trunks column-like. westward and Fruit: Sept., Oct. 

southward to Fla. 
and Texas. 

Bark: grey; loosely attached, and breaking into long, loose strips, which 
curve away from the tree at the bottom but remain attached at the middle. 
Leaf-buds; ovate; large; with leaf-like, brown and yellow-green scales. Leaves: 
compound; alternate; odd-pinnate; with rough stalks and five or seven leaflets; 




PLATE CXVI. MOCKER-NUT. Hicoria alba. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 




Pistillate Staminate 
flower. flower. 



PLATE CXVII. SHAG-BARK HICKORY. Hicoria ovata. 
(217) 



218 TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 

long ovate, or obovate ; sessile, with taper-pointed apex and wedge-shaped or 
rounded base, the lower pair of leaflets varying greatly from the others in 
shape; sharply serrate; thin; dark yellowish green, and glabrous above; paler 
below. Flowers : appearing after the leaves are nearly fully grown. Staminate 
catkins : light green; slender, and growing in threes on long peduncles. Pistillate 
ones : in spikes of from two to five flowers. Fruit: growing in a thick, green 
husk; smooth and lustrous on the outside, and opening to the base into four 
sections. Nut: whitish; ovate; flattened at the sides; four-angled, and con- 
taining a sweet, highly flavoured kernel. 

After the beautiful buds have burst their bright, petal-like 
scales, the shag-bark equips itself for the summer with a green 
sunshade of fresh and fragrant leaves. And it is also a sun- 
shade that is picturesque and exquisite in outline. There is 
besides no need of putting on one's spectacles before bowing to 
the tree. Its strange, shaggy bark at once proclaims its ident- 
ity, and formality is forgotten. With tranquil steadiness it 
produces every year its fruit a dainty gift to mankind. Were 
it only for its own purposes of reproduction there would be no 
need of its having so fine and sweet a flavour. It is the 
well-known hickory nut of the market. Those that wander 
much in the woods know well that a bit of self-restraint is nec- 
essary in the early autumn; for these nuts will not be hurried 
in their ripening, and no more pleasure is to be had from gath- 
ering them too soon than there is from trying to unfold for 
oneself the petals of a rose. 

The brownish-white wood of the shag-bark is tough, elastic 
and very valuable. Its uses are many. 

H. lacinibsa, big shell-bark, or king nut, is a rare tree which 
occasionally grows one hundred and twenty feet high, and is 
found in rich soil from New York and Pennsylvania southward 
and westward. It has a light grey bark which separates into 
thin, narrow plates, and the young branchlets are orange colour. 
The leaves are from ten to twenty inches long and have from 
five to nine obovate leaflets. Either solitary, or in pairs, the 
nuts grow, and they are much larger than those of the shag- 
bark hickory. In fact, to one that sees them for the first time, 
their size is astonishing. Their shell is also darker, with a yel- 







PLATE CXVIII. SMALL-FRUITED HICKORY. Hicoria microcarpa. 

(219) 



22o TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 

low tint, and the kernel, although sweet, has a less agreeable 
flavour. Hicoria laciniosa is slow of growth, and the wood that 
it produces is comparatively dark in colour. Otherwise there 
is much similarity between it and that of Hicoria ovata. 

SMALL-FRUITED HICKORY. {Plate CXVIII.) 
Hicoria microcdrpa. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 


Walnut. 


Rounded, conical. 


6o-gojeet. 


Mass. to Delaware and May, June. 

westward. Fruit: Sept., Oct. 



Bark: at first close, but separating into narrow strips. Leaves: compound 
alternate ; with smooth stalks and from five to seven sessile leaflets ; long ; 
oval ; pointed at the apex and at the base ; finely serrate ; glabrous above and 
only slightly pubescent in the angles of the ribs underneath and dotted with 
dark spots. Fruit : growing in a nearly globular, green, thin husk which 
splits when ripe nearly to the base. Nut ; small ; round; smooth ; not ridged ; 
thin-shelled. Kernel: sweet. 

It is not always a simple matter to tell at a glance the differ- 
ent hickories apart, for in general habit and picturesqueness 
of outline they closely resemble each other. The foliage of 
Hicoria microcarpa suggests that of Hicoria glabra ', the pig- 
nut, and the shell of its small fruit is also thin and free 
from angles. In fact, Professor Sargent regards the tree as a 
variety of Hicoria glabra. 

About the leaf-buds of the hickories there is always a charm. 
Many of them grow to the size of quite large leaves before fall- 
ing and are full of colour. Usually the pistillate blossoms are 
green, and so unobtrusive and modest are they that they might 
readily be mistaken for the unfolding foliage. The wood of 
the small-fruited hickory is light brown, tough and strong. 

WHITE ASH. (Plate CXIX.) 
Fraxinus Americana. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Olive. Rounded; lower branches, 40-120 feet. Nova Scotia west- April-June, 

slightly drooping. ward and south' 

ward to Florida 
and Texas. 

Lower bark: brownish grey, tinged with red ; furrowed, and becoming smoother 
upward and on the branches. Young shoots glossy, and marked with light 
coloured dots. Leaf-buds ; rust coloured ; glabrous and growing in elongated 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 



221 



panicles. Leaves : compound ; opposite ; odd-pinnate ; with from five to nine 
ovate, or lance-oblong leaflets; taper-pointed at the apex and pointed or inclined 
to be rounded at the base and extending into smooth petiolules about one quar- 
ter of an inch in length. Dark green and lustrous above, silvery underneath 
and pubescent, becoming glabrous at maturity excepting on the whitish under 
ribs. Mowers : dioecious ; appearing before the leaves. Staminate flowers : 
with three stamens which have short filaments and conspicuous anthers. Pis- 
filiate ones : with their ovaries extended into a slender style and having a pur- 
ple, spreading, two-lobed stigma. Samaras: hanging on slender pedicels in 
loose clusters ; the wings lanceolate and tapering to a point. 

" Why lingereth she to clothe her heart with love, 
Delaying as the tender ash delays 
To clothe herself, when all the woods are green ? " 

Tennyson. 

In the Eddas, the records of Scandinavian mythology, it is 
told that a mighty ash tree, " Ygdrasil," sprang from the body 
of the giant Ymir who under it 
lies prostrate. It is thought to 
support the whole universe. One 
of its great roots penetrates into 
the dwelling of the gods, another 
into the abode of the giants, and 
the third extends into the realms 
of darkness. Each root is wa- 
tered by a spring. In the abode 
of the gods it is tended by three 



Norns ; they are goddesses who 

dispense fate and represent the 

past, the present and the future. 

The spring in the giant's hall is 

Ymir's well and holds in its depths 

wit and wisdom. But the third 

spring feeds the adder, Nidhogge, 

darkness, which never ceases 

from gnawing at the tree's roots. 

erse the branches and bite off the buds. They are the four 

winds. After their creation of the universe, these gods also 

conceived the first man, Aske, to be made out of an ash tree, 




Frdxinus Amtrichna. 



Four harts ceaselessly travi 




PLATE CXIX. WHITE ASH. Fraxinus Americana. 
(222) 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 223 

and the first woman out of an alder. She was called 
Embla. 

The white ash is an especially handsome tree of rapid 
growth and with clean foliage that is not ravaged by insects. 
Its flexible, fine timber is of great value in cabinet work and is 
well adapted for the making of oars, carriage poles, shafts and 
agricultural implements. 

BLUE ASH. {Plate CXX.) 

Frdxz'nus quadranguldta. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Olive. Slender. 60-100 feet. Ontario to Minnesota and March, April. 

southward to Alabama. 

Bark: light grey; tinged with red and divided irregularly into plate-like 
scales. Branchlets : squared ; four-angled. Leaves : compound ; opposite ; 
odd-pinnate ; with from five to nine or more long ovate or lanceolate leaflets 
with very short petiolules, or nearly sessile. Apex and base taper- 
pointed; sharply serrate ; yellowish green ; dull and glabrous above, pale and 
glabrous below, but downy in the angles of the ribs when young. Flowers I 
dioecious ; insignificant ; growing on slender pedicels from separate buds in 
the axils of the leaf-scars of the preceding year, and unfolding as the terminal 
bud expands. Samaras : hanging in clusters ; narrowly oblong ; the wings ex- 
tending all around and nearly the same width throughout ; notched at the apex. 

In rich woods and on the fertile bottom lands of the west the 
blue ash is mostly found. But even throughout its natural 
range it is not a common tree. As is true of nearly all the 
members of its family, it is beautiful and unusually free from 
objectionable features. It grows rapidly to a tall and stately 
height, and its foliage has happily no blandishments for the in- 
sect world. In the autumn it turns to a pale yellow, and al- 
though the leaves have unfolded late in the spring, just when 
the samaras are forming, they are among the first to fall. The 
mark by which the tree is most readily known is the quadran- 
gular shape of its stems. It has, however, been popularly 
stated that they lose this feature as they grow old. But Mr. 
Beadle, of Biltmore, who has grown several hundred thousands 
of blue ashes, finds that from the first to the tenth year of their 
age there is a strong increase in this characteristic, and that 
to some extent it is always retained. 




PLATE CXX. BLUE ASH. Fraxinus quadrangulata. 
(224) 




PLATE CXXI. WHITE PINE. Pinus Strobus. 



09PYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 225 

The dark, yellowish wood of the blue ash is valuable. It is 
not very strong, but hard, and is adaptable for such purposes as 
flooring and parts of carriages. Commercially, it is not distin- 
guished from the other ashes of the northern and middle states. 
From its inner bark a blue dye is extracted and to this cir* 
cumstance is owing the tree's common name. 

WHITE PINE. WEYMOUTH PINE. {Plate CXXI.) 

Plnus Strbbus. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Pine. Conical: branches, 80-175 feet. Northward to Great June. 

whorled horizontally. Lakes, southward to Fruit: Sept. 

Georgia and Iowa. 

Bark : light greenish grey; smooth on young trunks and branches, and be- 
coming rough and brownish with age. Leaves : three to five inches long; sim- 
ple; arranged closely along the branches in clusters of five, and having short 
sheaths which fall early; needle-shaped; three-sided; light green; soft; deli- 
cate; glaucous. Cones : reddish brown; four to six inches long; terminal; soli- 
tary; drooping; cylindrical; slightly curved; resinous. Scales: thin; blunt. 
Seeds : winged. 

The tragrance of balsam, the greenness of hope seem to 
come to us with the very name of a pine; but there are few among 
them that can claim as much admiration as the white pine. 
Much of the peculiar charm which distinguishes our scenery 
from that of other lands is owing to its great whorled branches 
which regularly stand out against the sky. Throughout the 
winter how magnificent is this living creature of the forest, 
when it stretches out its arms to uphold the snow and ice that 
bend them without mercy to the ground. And how must it be 
thrilled with delight as it is touched with the soft air of spring 
which lovingly dries its needles by fanning them in its breezes. 
Then as the silver sheen of their undersides passes through the 
hazy blue tone of its green, Thoreau describes the effect as 
similar to that of cold flashes of electric light. 

It is interesting to reflect that during the latter part of the 
XVIIth century all silver shillings and smaller coins that were 
struck in the colony of Massachusetts bore the device of a 
white pine. Also in 1772, a clause in extenuation to one in the 
charter of Massachusetts Bay read : " That after September 21, 



226 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 




''.'.'^t<if*i>ii 



Pinus Strbbus. 

and receives a high polish, 
constructions it is much used. 



1772, in New England, New 
York and New Jersey in 
America no person shall 
cut or destroy any white 
pine trees, not growing in 
any township or its bounds, 
without his Majesty's li- 
cense." The name Wey- 
mouth pine was given to 
it in England, and was to 
commemorate Lord Wey- 
mouth. 

To-day the tree is in 
danger of extermination 
from the axe, for it is the 
most valuable timber tree 
of Eastern America. Its 
light, soft and straight- 
grained wood is free from 
knots and nearly so from 
resin. It is easily worked 
For carpentry and various 
In low, fertile soil the tree 



grows, often forming large forests, and also in sandy places. It 
appears most conspicuous in groves of deciduous-leaved trees, 
and in parts of New England it now occupies extensive tracts 
of abandoned farm land. 



HEMLOCK. {Plate CXXII.) 
Tsiiga Canadensis. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Pine. Conical; branches, 60-80-100 feet. New Brunswick west- April, May. 
horizontal, drooping. ward to the Gt. Lakes 

and southward. 

Bark: reddish or grey; scaly, and becoming more rough and furrowed 
with age. Leaves: linear; half an inch long; simple; growing flatly on little 
petioles, singly, and opposite to each other up and down the branchlets; nar- 
row; blunt at the apex and sometimes minutely toothed. When young light 




PLATE CXXII. HEMLOCK. Tsuga Canadensis. 



OOPYRIGHT, A900, Br FREDERICK A. STOKES OOMPANr. 
PRINTED I* AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 227 

yellow-green above, becoming darker; lustrous; silvery white underneath. 
Cones: very small; hardly over half an inch long; ovate-oblong; solitary and 
drooping at the ends of the branchlets. Scales: rounded; thin; and not open- 
ing widely when the seeds are ripe. Seeds and wings nearly as long as the scales. 

When on some open, rocky ridge this tree is seen growing by 
itself, it is often clothed to the ground with its graceful and 
drooping branches. Their spray is filmy and plume-like, and 
as first the intense lustre of their dark-green needles is height- 
ened and as then their silvery undersides dart upward, it appears 
as though a light, fleecy cloud were gambolling through its 
boughs. When the spring-time comes the tree is touched with 
a lively yellow-green and is then, as also when it is young, one 
of the most charming sights of nature. In October, in the for- 
est's shade it becomes dark, almost black, and stretches itself 
solemnly to its utmost height. 

The hemlock has been much planted as an ornamental tree 
and has in cultivation produced new varieties, but none of 
them is so free and graceful in its growth as the wild tree. 
More often than for its timber, which is coarsely grained and 
brittle, it is felled for the sake of its bark. From this tannin is 
largely taken to be used in the manufacture of leather, and it is 
also known to possess medicinal properties. 

T. Caroliniana, Carolina hemlock, is also of all the evergreen 
trees one of the most beautiful, and even in this point excels 
a little the common hemlock which it so closely resembles. In 
its habit of growth it is more dense, and the cones it bears are 
slightly larger with scales that are prone to diverge. The tree 
is not common and is generally found in groves along the high 
bluffs of the Blue Ridge mountains that part of the country 
so rich in flora and forestry. 

BLACK SPRUCE. (Plate CXXIII.) 

Plcea Martina. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Pine. Trunk, straight; lower y>-qo-\oofeet. North Carolina March-June, 

branches, drooping. northward. 

Bark: greyish brown; slightly rough. Branchlets: brown; greenish when 
young and pubescent. Leaves : seldom over two-thirds of an inch long; dark 





Scale ofconty showing 
seeds, , 



PLATE CXXIII. BLACK SPRUCE. Picea Mariana. 
(228) 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 229 

blue-green; simple; growing thickly all along and on every side of the tan col- 
oured tw.gs; needle-shaped; four-sided; curved or straight; rigid. Cones. : one- 
half to one and a half niches long; rich purple, and turning later to reddish 

SSTrfllX COl< T ; V / te r V id; teri " i,li 5 solitar y a "d drooping at he 
si tnt Mn b ; a " cl ^ es 5 ofte P ersiste ^^^ny years. Scales: rounded; per- 
sistent, thin, and becoming wavy toothed at the apex. 

To speak definitely of the outlines of trees is often difficult, 
for they adapt themselves with wonderful facility to the various 
conditions under which they grow. The black spruce when it 
inhabits dense thickets sends up a tall and slender shaft, quite 
free from branches until near its top ; but when growing in an 
open swamp with plenty of room for a free development it is 
often clothed to the ground with vigourous boughs. It then is 
very beautiful. After its youth has passed, however, and espe- 
cially in cultivation it becomes scraggly and rough looking. 
Only when the tree is surrounded by abundant moisture does 
it thrive well, and near the coasts of southern New England, 
New York and New Jersey, it occupies many small swamps 
and bogs. From those of the red spruce its leaves are readily 
distinguished for they are shorter and of a bluer tint of green. 
The timber produced by the black spruce is valuable and 
used among other purposes for the masts and spars of ships. 
It is pale red or white, straightly grained, and is marked with 
rather ornamental small knots. From the northern Indians it 
was that Europeans first learned to boil its young twigs with 
honey, and to extract the essence of spruce which is employed 
in making beer of that name. 

WHITE SPRUCE. (Plate CXXIV.) 

Plcea Canadensis. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Pine. Cone-shaped, slender. 30-100-150/^/. Maine and north April y May. 

-west to Minnesota. 

Bark: brown; scaly. Twigs: light buff; smooth. Leaves : light olive- 
green; simple; growing closely and singly from all sides of the branches; 
needle-shaped; four-sided; slender; slightly curved and sharply pointed on 
the sterile branches ; more blunt on those that are fertile; glaucous. Staminate 
flowers: pale red. Cones: one to two inches long ; pale green and turning 
later to light brown or tan colour; solitary; drooping; terminal at the ends of 




Scale of cone. Staminate flower. 

PLATE CXXIV. WHITE SPRUCE. Picea Canadensis. 
(230) 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 23 1 

the branchlets. Oval, or cylindrical; very soft to the touch and falling at the 
end of the year. Scales : broadly obovate; rounded or twolobed at the apex; 
entire. 

As the tall shaft of the white spruce raises itself above the 
level of surrounding things and spreads its branches until 
they form a cone-shaped outline, it stands distinct and clear 
against the monotonous skyline. Nature shows us many little 
differences : nothing to her is insignificant. We notice therefore 
that the needles of the spruces have fine and sharp points and 
that they are arranged all about and on every side of the little 
branchlets. The fir trees have blunt-pointed needles, and the 
under sides of their twigs are not covered by them. That this 
tree may not be confused with the black spruce, its bark and 
foliage are both lighter in colouring ; and the scales of its 
cones are thinner and more papery to the touch than either 
those of the black or red spruce. (Pages 227 and 258). Of its 
clear, exquisitely white or faint yellow wood the best specimens 
have been compared to satin-wood. It is much used for fine 
interior finish. 

BALSAil FIR. BALH OF GILEAD FIR. (Plate CXXV.) 

Abih balsdmea. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Pine. Pyramidal; branches, 20-60 feet. Northward to Minn. April, May. 

horizontal. southward to W. Va. 

Bark: grey; smooth and horizontally marked as though with blisters. Little 
branchlets growing at an angle of forty-five degrees to the larger ones. Leaves : 
one-half or barely an inch long; simple; growing singly and flatly along the 
branchlets; needle-shaped; notched or blunt at the apex; very flat; straight; 
grooved above and having a raised ridge below; dark blue-green above; 
silvery bluish white below ; evergreen. Odour; aromatic. Cones: small; from 
two to hardly four inches long; violet colour when young, becoming light 
brown ; growing erectly on the upper sides of the branches. Scales : broadly 
rounded; flat and thin; opening and falling when the seeds are ripe. The 
inner bract of the scales tipped with a bristle. Seeds : resinous. 

Here we have the Christmas tree, the one most often 
chosen from the forest to be the central figure of gay and 
human scenes. But who that has read Anderson's story, " Der 
Tannenbaum," can help sympathising with the little stranger 



*3* 



TREES GROWING IN RICH SOIL. 




as it stands alone amid its new and untried surroundings ? 
Although it had ardently longed to grow 
and to leave the quietude of the forest, 
that it might see something of the world 
without ; it had been hurt by the axeman, 
and it found almost stifling the air of the 
brilliantly-lighted room. It bled at its 
base and suffered. 

Even in cultivation the tree is short- 
lived. It is the one, it is well to remem- 
ber, from which the needles should be 
gathered to fill pillows. 

From the blister-like portions of its 
bark, balsam is abundantly procured, and 
the air laden with its odours is known to have certain bene- 
ficial qualities, especially when breathed by those that have 
pulmonary diseases. 

A. Fraseri, Fraser's balsam fir, is a beautiful rare tree 
which grows among the higher Alleghany mountains. It is very 
like the preceding species. In general tone it is olive-green 
although the under side of the needles is bluish white, and 
running through their middle is a line of bright green. The 
needles are very blunt-pointed and grow thickly on the upper 
side of the little branchlets. The cones are small and oblong, 
and the inner leaflet, or bract of the scales, projects a short and 
reflexed point. 



Abiis balshmea. 




PLATE CX XV. BALSAM FIR. Abies balsamea. 



COPYRIGHT, !900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PU'NTED IN AMERICA. 



Trees Preferring to Grow in Sandy or 
Rocky Soil: Hillsides and Barrens. 

" Father, thy hand 
Hath reared these venerable columns, thou 
Didst weave this verdant roof. Thou didst look down 
Upon the naked earth, and, forthwith, rose 
All these fair ranks of trees. They, in thy sun, 
Budded, and shook their green leaves in thy breeze, 
A nd shot towards heaven. The century-living crow 
Whose birth was in their tops, grew old and died 
Among their branches, till at last, they stood, 
As now they stand, massy, and tall, and dark, 
Fit shrine for humble worshipper to hold 
Communion with his maker." 

A Forest Hymn. BRYANT. 

PERSinriON. DATE-PLUM. {Plate CXXVI.) 

Diospfros Virginiana. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOi* 

Ebony. Round-topped; branches^ 20-60 feet or Rhode Island south- May, June. 

spreading or pendulous. higher. ward to Fla. and Fruit; Sept. -Nov, 

westward to Illinois. 

Bark : almost black or tinged with red ; rough and divided into plates ; as- 
tringent. Leaves: three to five inches long ; simple ; alternate ; with short, 
pubescent petioles ; broadly-lanceolate or oval, with pointed apex and pointed, 
rounded or cordate base ; dark green and lustrous above, pale and dull under- 
neath ; thick ; the whole leaf bordered with a delicate fringe, and pubescent 
when young. Flowers : small ; greenish yellow ; the staminate ones mostly 
clustered, the pistillate ones, solitary; axillary. Calyx: four-parted. Corolla: 
bell-shaped ; four-cleft. Fruit : globose ; almost sessile ; astringent when 
green; when ripe reddish orange or rusty brown ; edible; sweet; clinging to 
the branches until the beginning of winter. 

In the fresh, green days of its youth, the fruit of the persim- 



234 



TREES GROWING IN SANDY SOIL. 




mon has a very acrid taste, as those find that have been unable 
to curb their impatience and have allowed its prettiness to 
tempt them to " try and see." But as 
it grows older, perhaps knows life bet- 
ter, and has been mellowed and turned 
to a rich, reddish orange or brown by 
the unrelenting touch of Jack Frost, it 
becomes sweet and agreeable. It is 
also not until after the tree is a hun- 
dred years old that it develops its 
heart-wood. Then it is nearly black, 
very firm and hard. From it shuttles 
and shoe lasts are made. In fact, al- 
most all the parts of the tree are use- 
ful, as was well known by the Indians. 
They, in some way, dried its fruit and afterwards made it into 
beer. Combined with hops it is still brewed into domestic beer, 
and it is manufactured into brandy. Tannin is also found in 
the fruit which is possessed of a colouring matter, service- 
able in making indelible ink. The seeds have been roasted as 
a substitute for coffee. From the bitter bark a strengthening 
tonic is produced. 

Throughout the southern part of the Atlantic and Gulf 
states the tree is very common, and many of them are often 
found growing thickly together in a shrubby form. The Duke 
of Argyle presented a persimmon tree to George the Third, 
and it is said to be still contentedly growing in the old abore- 
tum at Kew. 



Diostfros Virginiana. 



CALIFORNIA MAHOGANY. {Plate CXXVII.) 
Rhus integrifblia. 



FAMILY 


8HAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Sum 


Low, spreading. 


10-30 feet, or 
i-a feet. 


Coast of California. 


March., April. 



Bark : reddish or greyish brown ; rough and ridged. Leaves : simple ; al- 
ternate ; with short, pubescent petioles ; oval ; rounded or pointed at the apex 




PLATE CXXVI. PERSIMMON. Diospyros Virgintana. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, Br FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 




Staminate flower^ 
enlarged, 

*>UTE CXXVII. CALIFORNIA MAHOGANY. Rhus integrifolia. 

(235) 



236 TREES GROWING IN SANDY SOIL. 

and rounded or tapering along the petiole at the base; entire or sometimes dis- 
tantly toothed, when the sinuses are rounded, deep yellow, green above, 
paler beneath and glabrous, excepting along the veins and midrib ; evergreen. 
Flowers: dioecious ; small; growing in terminal, close racemes. Sepals: five; 
rose colour; fringed at the margin. Petals: five; rose colour; rounded; re- 
flexed. Stamens: five, their filaments slender, with light coloured anthers. 
Berries : ovate ; deep red and covered with a dark, sticky pubescence ; their 
juice viscid and resinous. 

About the clusters of tiny flowers of this shrub there is a 
flushed, rosy look as though they were blushing. Its fruit ap- 
pears more assured and is of a deep, pure red which makes a 
fine effect among its leaves. The sticky substance with which 
the berries are covered renders them unpleasant to handle, and 
seems to warn one from eating them, especially when the rather 
unchristian-like characteristics of some of their relatives 
are remembered. Many cooling drinks, however, which are 
said to be excellent, are made from the oily substance that 
abundantly exudes from them. 

Growing inland in the sandy, sterile soil about California, 
Rhus integrifolia is usually found as a small tree ; but when it 
ventures to appear along the bluffs of the coast, it assumes a 
low, prostrate position, that it may better resist the tempests 
and high winds. For even greater protection, numbers of them 
are often found growing closely together. Its wood is a clear 
red and handsome. For fuel it is mostly used. 





DWARF THORN. HAW. {Plate CXXVIII.) 




Crataegus uniflbra. 


FAMILY 
Apple. 


SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 
Bushy. 3-8 or xi/eet. Southern New York May. 

southward. Fruit: Oct. 



Bark: ash colour ; furrowed. Thorns: numerous; nearly one to two inches 
long; slender; straight. Leaves: simple; alternate; almost sessile; spatu- 
late-obovate, with rounded teeth and entire at the base ; lustrous and glabrous 
above at maturity, pubescent underneath ; thick. Flowers : white ; usually 
one only, growing on a short peduncle at the end of the branchlets amid a clus- 
ter of leaves. Calyx : with five long points which equal the petals in length. 
Corolla : of five, rosaceous petals. Stamens : numerous. Styles : five. Fruit : 
yellowish; globular or pear-shaped; covered with hairs when young and con- 
taining five hard carpels. 

Often in the sandy soil of abandoned fields and forest bop 




PLATE CXXVIII. DWARF THORN. Cratoegus uniflora. 
(237) 



238 TREES GROWING IN SANDY SOIL. 

ders we find the dwarf thorn. Either in bloom or in fruit it is 
a pleasing, cheery sight, and it makes no secret of its family 
traits. The one delicate flower, but rarely are two found, 
that snuggles among the bright green leaves, or the solitary 
fruit, is an indication of its species, and it is also a shrub. 
Only along the banks of the Appalachicola River in Florida 
does it become arborescent. 

It is always a gay time of the year when the hawthorns 
blow. The pageant of colour is then wending its way to its 
height of glory, and from the lowlands, the thickets and the 
swamps are seen the flowering trees and shrubs. Mountain 
sides are transformed into huge bouquets. The air is soft, and 
summer has come again. 

AMERICAN ASPEN. WHITE POPLAR. QUAKING ASP. 

{Plate CXXIX.) 
Pdpulus tremuloldes. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Willow. Round-topped^ symmetrical. 20-80-100 feet. General. April. 

Bark: nearly black at the base; rough and broken, and having brownish 
blotches under the branches. Branchlets : greenish white ; smooth ; bitter. 
Leaves: simple; alternate; with yellow petioles which are flattened sideways; 
broadly-ovate or semi-orbicular ; rounded or abruptly pointed at the apex and 
cordate at the base ; sharply and regularly serrate ; dark green and lustrous 
above at maturity, yellowish green and glabrous underneath, but downy along 
the edges ; when young covered with tomentum. Ribs : whitish or pale yellow. 
Flowers : dioecious ; growing in drooping catkins and appearing before the 
leaves. The scales of the catkins silky, and having from three to five linear 
lobes. 

The mythological legend concerning the poplars comes up- 
permost in the mind when watching the ceaselessly trembling 
leaves of this species. 

After Phaeton had been hurled into the river Eridanus by 
the thunderbolts of Jupiter, for the peril he had caused by at- 
tempting to drive his father's chariot, his three sisters, the 
Heliades, greatly lamented. They ever sat by the river's edge 
and wrung their hands while their tears ceaselessly flowed. At 
last such sorrow touched the compassion of the gods, who 




Statninate Ripe 

flower. capsule. 



PLATE CXXIX. AMERICAN ASPEN. Populus tremuloides. 
(239) 



240 TREES GROWING IN SANDY SOIL. 

changed them into poplar trees and their tears into amber ; for 
it was the belief of the ancients that amber flowed like tear- 
drops from the poplars. 

The trees hardly suggest to us to-day such poignant grief. 
They are very gay and silvery when glistening and moving in 
the sunshine, and in the autumn they are fairly suffused with 
a golden glow. 

The long hairs that surround the seeds of Populus tremu- 
loides waft them to considerable distances from the plants by 
which they are borne. After they are deposited they germin- 
ate quickly and are well adapted to grow in soil that has been 
devoured by fire. On slopes of the Rocky mountains where 
immense tracts of land have thus been swept over and the con- 
iferous trees destroyed, this tree has sprung up and covered 
the unsightly places with its stirring leaves. It also does good 
work in holding the soil of steep mountain sides together. 

il But here will sigh thine alder tree, 
And here thine aspen shiver ; 
And here by thee will hum the bee, 
Forever and forever." 

Tennyson. 

In the east the soft, light wood of Populus tremuloides is mostly 
converted into wood pulp with which to make paper or used as 
a substitute for rags. It is not strong or durable, but it is tough 
and when bruised rapidly closes its wounds. For this reason 
the ancients greatly desired it for bucklers. In early spring 
the northern Indians eat its sweet inner bark, and they use it 
for fuel. Even while green it burns freely. 

LIVE OAK. {Plate CXXX.) 

Qudrcus Virginidna. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Beech. Head, spreading, 40-60 feet. Virginia to Florida and March, April. 

broad. Mexico. Fruit: Sept., Oct. 

Bark: dark brown; deeply furrowed. Branches: grey. Leaves: simple; 
alternate; with petioles about a quarter of an inch long; ovate-lanceolate; 
with rounded apex and rounded or pointed base; entire, the edges inclined to 




PLATE CXXX. LIVE OAK. Quercus Vtrginiana. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, 9Y FREDERICK . STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN SANDY SOIL. 



241 



curve inward. Occurring also in a spatulate form with minute side teeth 
towards the apex. Dark green and glossy above, lighter and pubescent under- 
neath; thick; firm; evergreen. Flowers: appearing with the young leaves' 
the staminate ones growing in long axillary catkins. Acorns ; growing on 
long stems. Cup-, grey, or light brown; deep; pointed at the base and 
covered with closely compressed, fine and downy scales; slightly fringed about 
the top. Nut ; dark brown ; oval ; lustrous, smooth. 

When twilight is gathering its dimness these oaks cast broad 
shadows upon the earth, and those that have never seen their 
great forms in the south 
hung with the swaying 
Tiilandsia can hardly 
conceive of the mysti- 
cal effect they then 
produce. About their 
small evergreen leaves 
there seems to be a 
firmness of purpose, and ^ 
the whole appearance 7 
of the trees is vigourous 
and powerful. 

Of the fifty species of oaks that are indigenous to America 
none is more interesting than Quercus Virginiana. A small 
spray of its foliage, such as is illustrated in the coloured plate, 
bears hardly any resemblance to that of the red, the scarlet, 
the white or many of the other oaks so familiar in the north- 
eastern part of America. It rather suggests the willow oak, 
with which the tree is often found growing. The acorns of the 
live oak are small and among the quaintest of the family. 

Quercus Virginiana produces timber which is rather difficult 
to work, but it is strong and compact and receives readily a 
high polish. It is much used in ship building. The bark of 
the tree contains considerable tannin. 




Quercus Virginiana. 



242 



TREES GROWING IN SANDY SOIL. 



SPANISH OAK. {Plate CXXXI.) 
Qudrcus digitdta. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE 

Beech. Round-topped; 20-30 or 80 feet. N.J. southward and 
branches^ spreading. westward. 



TIME OF BLOOM 

May, June. 
Fruit: Sept. 



Oct. 



Bark: brownish red or almost black; rough and broadly-winged. Leaves: 
simple; alternate; obovate or oblong, widening towards the middle and 
forming from three to seven long, slender lobes; the terminal one some- 
what scythe-shaped; entire or sparingly toothed and bristle tipped; the base 
wedge-shaped or rounded, frequently one-sided. Dark green and glabrous 
above, rusty grey and pubescent underneath. Acorns: small; almost sessile. 
Cup: shallow. Nut: rounded and slightly hollowed at the apex. Kernel: 
bitter. 

It is not difficult to recognise the Spanish oak although its 
leaves are very variable and often occur on separate trees or 

even on branches of the 
same tree in two distinct 
forms. They are always 
downy underneath. Glanc- 
ing upward through one 
of these trees, when its foli- 
age is beginning to dry and 
fall in the autumn, it will be 
noticed to have a more 
sharply cut and angular look 
than that of any other of 
the oaks. The effect is 
owing to its deeply incised 
and slender lobes. Soil 
and climatic conditions 
greatly influence the tree's 
growth. In the northern 
Atlantic states it is not com- 
mon, and it clings to the 
coast. In southern New Jersey, where it is more frequent, 
it chooses gravelly places and barrens for its habitat ; but it 
does not then attain the stately and slender height that it does 
southward. It there grows in swamps, often side by side with 




Qu/rcus digitata. 




PLATE CXXXI. SPANISH OAK. Quercus digitata. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERI 



TREES GROWING IN SANDY SOIL. 243 

the swamp white oak, and its bark is pale and scaly. Its 
acorns are among those that require two years in which to 
ripen. 

The reddish brown wood of the Spanish oak, although strong, 
is not regarded as being of any especial value excepting for 
fuel. Its bark contains tannin and properties which are of 
value medicinally. 



SCARLET OAK. {Plate CXXXII.) 
Quircus coccinea. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Beech. Head, narrow, 5090 feet or New England south- May, June. 

open. higher. ward and westward. Fruit: Sept., Oct. 

Bark: greyish brown; rough. Inner bark : reddish. Leaves: large; sim- 
ple; alternate; slender-petioled; broadly oval; often squared at the base and 
having from five to nine lobes, which frequently extend to within half an inch 
of the midrib; toothed and bristle-tipped at their ends; sinuses, broadly 
rounded. Bright green and lustrous above, lighter beneath, with slender, 
yellow midrib; glabrous. Flowers: monoecious; yellowish green; the stam- 
inate ones growing in slender catkins, the pistillate ones, bright red and 
clustered on pubescent peduncles. Acorns: sessile or growing on peduncles; 
quite large. Cup: scaly, with conical base. Nut: one-half to three-quarters 
of an inch long; rounded. Kernel: white; bitter. 

All minor characteristics of the scarlet oak seem to be 
immersed in the brilliant bright red of its autumn foliage, the 
most exquisite tint displayed by any one of the family. But 
those that have watched its unfolding leaves in the spring 
know that they too were red when they first peeped shyly out 
at the world, and it therefore does not seem strange that when 
they are about to die they should return to their early convic- 
tions. The tree at all times is a charmingly gay feature 
of the landscape and when seen must ever surpass the 
accounts that have been written about it. In sandy or light, 
dry soil it grows, often beside the black oak, and it is much 
seen and desired in cultivation. 

The custom of the oak family is for its pistillate flowers to 
grow in an involucre that appears like a bud, and it is this 
involucre which later becomes the cup, or cupule. When the 




Sterile catkins. 



PLATE CXXXII. SCARLET OAK. Quercus coccinea. 
(244) 




PLATE CXXXIII. BLACK OAK. Quercus velutina. 

COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOkES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA 



TREES GROWING IN SANDY SOIL. 245 

nut drops into the ground and begins to germinate it does not 
send up at once two cotyledons from the summit of itshypocotyl. 
They, in the husk, have become so thickened as to have lost 
their power of acting as leaves, and they occupy nearly the whole 
of the seed. Instead, therefore, of growing themselves, they 
supply to the plumule, or little bud which lies between them, an 
abundance of nourishment. For this reason when it sends up 
the first joint of its stem, the first leaves that appear on it are 
imperfect, often little more than scales. The true cotyledons 
have remained below. [Plate VI.). 



BLACK OAK. QUERCITRON. YELLOW-BARK OAK. 

{Plate CXXXIII.) 
Quircus velutlna. 

Between the black oak and the scarlet oak there are certain 
differences in colour which may aid many to distinguish them. 
It is true that at times they are dissimilar in leafage, but again 
the black oak is so very variable that some of its forms are 
nearly identical with those of Quercus coccinea. 

The kernel of its nut is bright yellow and smaller than that 
of the scarlet oak, which is white. But unfortunately the 
acorns mature in September and October only, so during the 
early part of the summer we must seek out some other unchang- 
ing difference between them. Again we are aided by colour. 
The bark of the black oak is a dark brown, or nearly black, and it 
is broken into close scales. A still more poignant difference 
is that its inner bark is deep orange, never reddish or grey. 
In the spring its leaves are red, and they turn when the 
tree blooms to a silvery green. They are rich red or russet 
in hue in the autumn and quite without the vivid touch of 
colour which is the chief charm of the scarlet oak. 

The tree grows with a narrow, open head to a height of from 
seventy to eighty or even a hundred feet. It is never as 
stately as the red oak. In the coloured plate the leaves are 



246 TREES GROWING IN SANDY SOIL. 

represented in their broadest form. As they then appear and 
after they have lost their bristles, which they often do at matur- 
ity, they have a blunt and pronounced expression quite at vari- 
ance with that of their narrower forms. Although generally pu- 
bescent underneath, the leaves become smoother as they grow 
old. In gravelly uplands the tree is found, and from Maine 
southward to Florida and westward. 

Quercitron, a well-known dye, is extracted from the bark of 
the black oak which is also valuable because of its abundant 
yield of tannin. A substance is besides taken from it that has 
considerable efficacy when used for external applications. 

LABRADOR PINE. GREY PINE. NORTHERN SCRUB 

PINE. BANK'S PINE. (Plate CXXXIV) 

Pinus divaricdta. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Pine. Head, often; branches, 40-80- \oafeet. Southward to Maine May, June, 

long, straggly. and New York, west- 

ward to Illinois. 

Bark : dark brown ; irregularly ridged and flaky when old. Twigs : red- 
dish. Leaves: one inch long; greyish green ; simple ; growing closely crowded 
along the branches in bunches of two with sheaths at their bases and diverging 
widely ; needle-shaped ; pointed at the apex ; grooved above and curved ; 
rigid ; evergreen. Co>ies ; about two inches long ; numerous; oblong-conical; 
growing usually in pairs and curving upward in the direction of the branches ; 
thick. Scales : blunt ; thickened at the apex and tipped when young with a 
spine ; glabrous. 

About the great there is simplicity, and somehow we are 
sensible of this when we stand before these grave inhabitants 
of the forests, the pines. They have lived long on the globe. 
In fact, the coniferous trees knew the world in one of its earli- 
est geological ages, the Age of Reptiles. Flying things were 
then not developed, but it mattered little to them. The wind 
was already old and in spite of its extravagance served well 
to distribute their pollen. From its aid they have never de- 
parted in favour of the gay, gauzy and prudent insect messen- 
gers of a later time. This is not true, however, of all trees. 

It is interesting to notice the extreme simplicity of the or- 




Scale of cone. 

PLATE CXXXIV. LABRADOR PINE. Pinus divaricata. 
(247) 



248 TREES GROWING IN SANDY SOIL. 

gans by which these great beings reproduce themselves. The 
fertile flowers of the pines proper grow in scaly catkins which 
later develop into cones. Their pistils are not, as ordinarily, 
leaves rolled together so as to form closed pods. They are 
always open, scale-like leaves which bear on their inner sur- 
faces, near the base, two or more ovules. About the woody 
axis of the cone they grow in a spiral fashion, subtended by 
the woody cone-scales. When the pollen is falling from the 
stamens these pistil leaves of the young cone are ready to re- 
ceive it, that it may fall directly upon the exposed ovules. As 
it slips in between the opening scales it is caught by a tiny 
drop of fluid which exudes from the coat of the ovule. When 
the fluid is then absorbed, the little grain comes closely in con- 
tact with the ovule's surface. As soon as this is accomplished 
the cone-scales close tightly over each other to protect the 
forming seeds, and not until they are ripe do they again diverge 
and assume a drooping position to allow of their escape. The 
sterile flowers also are simple, almost primitive in construction. 
They grow in long, close tufts at the ends of the branches, 
for both sorts of flowers are produced on the same tree. We 
may regard them as single stamens which have been reduced 
to a two-celled anther with hardly any filament. From them 
the pollen flies in golden clouds during the days of May. 
Each little grain is floated about by two bladder-like wings. 
They can be caught and examined under a microscope ; for it 
only needs a quickened observation to see them abundantly 
lying about. 

Pinus divaricata occurs both as a shrub and as a tree. It is 
not very beautiful, for its short needles give it a blunt, obtuse 
look. But its wood is much used for the making of charcoal. 
It is quite resinous. The Canadian Indians find it easy to 
work and often construct from it the frames of their canoes. 

About the tree still clings some fetish idea, and in parts of 
the country, women, to whom it is especially supposed to work 
mischief, loudly declare that they would not pass within ten 



TREES GROWING IN SANDY SOIL. 



249 



feet of it. The soil in which it grows is said to be poi- 
soned by it, and thus it wreaks an indirect injury upon brows- 
ing cattle. The only way to dispel its supposed evil influence 
is to have it mysteriously burned down, as the superstitious 
dread of it is strong enough to preserve it from the axe. 



CANADIAN PINE. RED PINE. {Plate CXXXV) 



Pinus resinbsa. 



FAMILY 
Pine. 



SHAPE 
Pyramidal^ irregular. 



TIME OF BLOOM 
M ay \ June. 



HEIGHT RANGE 

So-yo-isofeet. New Foundland and 
northward to 
Wisconsin. 

Bark : reddish brown ; almost smooth ; becoming scaly when old. 
Branches : red ; smooth. Leaves : five to eight inches long ; dark green 
simple ; growing along the branches in bunches of two and having at their 
bases a long, persistent sheath ; needle-shaped ; rounded on the upper side, 
the lower one hollowed ; supple ; glabrous. Cones : two to three inches long ; 
growing at the apex of the branches in crowded clusters ; ovate-conical ; glab- 
rous. Scales : rounded at their bases ; somewhat thickened and having no 
prickly points. 

It is to the clear, bright colour 
of the bark of its trunk that this 
species of pine owes its name of 
red pine, but its specific name is 
rather misleading. The tree is 
not nearly so rich in resin as 
many another. This resin which 
we find in the wood of coniferous 
trees plays an important part in 
their construction. With the oil 
of turpentine which is held in the 
tree, it forms a sticky substance 
well known as balsam. And bal- 
sam is the balm for all the pine 
tree's wounds. Wherever the 
trunk, the branches, or even the 
leaves have been bruised it ex- 
udes and adheres closely to the 
spot. By the action of the sun pinus resinbsa. 





Staminate 
flowering branch. 

PLATE CXXXV. CANADIAN PINE. Pinus resinosa. 
(250) 



TREES GROWING IN SANDY SOIL. 251 

and the air it is then hardened into a soothing plaster which 
prevents the vital fluids from escaping. Through the aid of bal- 
sam therefore the tree is often saved from dying and is kept 
alive for a long time, even although it has been girdled. The 
heart-wood of many pines also never seems to grow old. When 
necessary it can resume the function of its youth and pilot the 
sap up to the leaves for nourishment. 

The wood of the Canadian, or red pine, is pale red, hard and 
compact. Its grain is not nearly so beautiful as that of the 
yellow pine. For many purposes it is used, such as the con- 
struction of bridges, and it is largely exported from Canada to 
Great Britain. The bark contains tannin. 

Although always a picturesque tree, it is in its youth that 
Pinus resinosa is most beautiful. Its long, supple needles then 
grow in clusters along the branches as well as in thick, soft 
tufts at their extremities. As the tree grows old the side 
needles fall away, and were it not for the end clusters it would 
look almost as though it were dead. 

JERSEY PINE. SCRUB PINE. (Plate CXXXVI.) 

Pinus Virginidna. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Pine. Pyramidal, irregular: 15-40 feet, Eastern States to South April, May. 

branches, scraggly, or higher. Carolina and Indiana, 
drooping. 

Bark : greyish brown or black ; rough ; flaky. Branches : smooth ; the 
twigs purplish; glaucous. Leaves: from nearly one to three inches long; 
deep yellow-green; simple; growing closely along the branches in bunches of 
two and sheathed at their bases ; when old spreading ; needle-shaped ; round 
and glabrous on the upper side, flat and rough below ; slightly curved ; stiff. 
Cones ; from nearly two to three inches long ; solitary ; ovate-oblong and 
growing on short stalks. Scales ; thin ; thickened at the apex and tipped with 
a stiff, awl-shaped prickle ; often cracked horizontally. 

From the subtle but recognised lines of beauty this pine has 
indeed departed, and its reputation is that of not being hand- 
some. But who shall say that its rugged, irregular growth does 
not present beauty in another than the conventional form? 
Surely in the regions where it grows no one stops to criticise it, 




St a m inate flower. 



Scale of cone. 



PLATE CXXXVI. JERSEY PINE. Pinus Virginiana. 

(252) 




PLATE CXXXVII. LONG-LEAVED PINE. Pinus palustrts. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTEO IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN SANDY SOIL. 253 

or to think that it is other than attractive. Over fields where 
the soil has been exhausted by succeeding crops it spreads 
itself rapidly and lends a sturdy, wholesome look to the land- 
scape. Sometimes it forms dark forests. One of its strong 
points of individuality is that its branches are smooth ; those of 
other pines are usually scaly. In the Atlantic states it rarely 
grows to a great height. 

The reddish-yellow wood of the Jersey pine is resinous and 
not very strong. It is brittle and pithy in substance, and for 
these reasons is of rather inferior value. 

LONG-LEAVED PINE. SOUTHERN YELLOW PINE. 

GEORGIA PINE. {Plate CXXXVJI.) 

Plnus paltistris. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Pine. Head y rounds open; jo-80-120 yeet. North Carolina south- March, April., 
trunk, slender. ward to Texas. 

Bark: orange-brown, separating into thin scaly plates. Leaves : ten to fifteen 
inches long; dark bluish green; simple; growing closely in bunches of three, 
and forming thick tufts at the ends of the branches; sheaths from one to one 
and a quarter inches long; slender; flexible. Cones: six to ten inches long; 
light brown; cylindrical; terminal; erect. Scales : thick, with small, blunt spines 
at their ends. 

To those that have walked through the great forests formed 
by this tree and by, among others, the white cedars and live oaks, 
there must always cling a memory of the impression made by 
its masses of long, flexible needles and its beautiful cones. 
About it there is the same appearance of gravity and aloofness 
which characterises so many of the pines. It seems as though 
they were less playful, more reserved than the deciduous-leaved 
trees ; as though even Nature did not venture to dress and 
undress them just whenever she chose. 

Of the pitch pines this great tree is the most valuable, and 
so extensively has its wood been utilized that the very name 
Georgia pine is suggestive of commerce. Viaducts, bridges, 
trestle-work and great quantities of railroad ties are made 
from it. Even its stumps are cut up and sold in bundles for 



254 



TREES GROWING IN SANDY SOIL. 



kindling wood. The colour of the wood is a deep, rich orange, 
yellow or light red, and it is more ornamental than that fur- 
nished by any other of the pines. 
Its juices also are valuable, and 
supply the greater part of our 
turpentine, resin and tar. In the 
" turpentine country " of Georgia 
it is truly a pathetic sight to see 
these trees when girdled and 
bruised from the process of box- 
ing. Their juices have then been 
drawn off and sent to be distilled. 
Even before the Revolution this 
making of turpentine was a large 
industry in this country. For 
many years the trees exist it can 
hardly be called living and some- 
times a small tuft of green at 
their top is all that distinguishes 
them from those that are dead. 
Were it not for the long continued activity of their heart-wood 
and the healing salve of their balsam they would have neces- 
sarily succumbed. Through its extensive usefulness, however, 
the tree seems to be doomed by the axe. Even the young 
trees when they occur among objectionable undergrowth are 
set on fire that they may clear it away, and their ashes improve 
and fertilize the land. At Christmas time also in the south 
many fall every year for the decoration of houses and churches. 




Plnus palustris. 



SHORT-LEAVED PINE. YELLOW PINE. SPRUCE PINE. 
BULL- PINE. {Plate CX XX VIII.) 



Plnus echinata. 

HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

-40-120 feet. New York to Florida May, June, 

westward to Kansas. 



FAMILY SHAPE 

Pine. Pyramidal; branches, 
spreading, regular. 

Bark : greyish brown; rough; much broken into plates. Branchlets : green 
or purplish; stout; glaucous when young. Leaves : three to five inches long; 




PLATE CXXXVIII. SHORT-LEAVED PINE. Pinus tchinata. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, Br FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN SANDY SOIL. 255 

dark bluish green; simple; growing closely along the branches in bunches of 
two, or sometimes three on the young shoots, and having sheaths at their bases ; 
diverging widely at maturity; needle-shaped; slender; dark green, and rounded 
on the outer side, hollowed on the inner one; soft; evergreen. Cones : one and 
a half to two inches long; ovate; solitary and lateral; rough and jagged as they 
grow older. Scales thick at the apex, and tipped with a weak, projecting 
prickle which falls early. 

Dark, but clear against the autumn sky, this handsome tree 
raises itself on the sandy hills, or in the flat meadows. It 
breathes a sense of sturdiness. Often we see its leaves so 
clothed with dust that the very life of their colouring appears 
to be gone ; then they are washed by the rain, and their sombre 
brightness is restored. By the coloured illustration, which is 
very beautiful, the distinctive cones of the species are clearly 
represented. When they are old and lying useless upon the 
ground they are quite jagged and have a used-up ex- 
pression. 

The tree is rather generally distributed and seems to be get- 
ting in readiness to supply a new crop of valuable timber when 
that of Pinus palustris, long- leaved pine, from which its com- 
mon name of short-leaved pine is used as a designation, shall be 
exhausted. In many ways the wood of the two trees is similar, 
although that of Pinus echinata can hardly boast as rich a col- 
our. It has, however, the same beautiful lines. It is closely or 
coarsely grained and varies greatly in quality. It is only mod- 
erately resinous. For all kinds of building and carpentry it is 
of inestimable value. When used for fuel it emits a large 
amount of heat and burns with a lively, brilliant flame. 

PITCH PINE. TORCH PINE. CANDLEWOOD PINE. 

(Plate C XXXIX.) 
Pinus rigida. 

FAMILY 8HAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Pine, Head, open; branches, yr-%ofeet. Eastern and Middle April, May. 

irregular; trunk, states; Ga. and Ky. 

curving. 

Bark: dark, tinged with purple or red; rough and deeply furrowed; separat- 
ing into strips. Leaves: three to six inches long; dark yellow-green ; simple; 
growing closely along the branches in bunches of three and having short 



256 



TREES GROWING IN SANDY SOIL. 



sheaths at their bases; at maturity spreading; needle-shaped; flattened on 
the outer side, the inner one slightly ridged and rough; curved ; rigid; sharp ; 
evergreen. Under the microscope the surface can be seen to be marked with 
fine white dots. Cones : one and a half to three inches long; growing mostly 
in clusters of two or four; ovoid-conical; lateral. Scales: thickened at their 
apex and tipped with a stiff and sometimes recurved prickle. 

How much the trees give to man ; the life element of 
the air he breathes is only the beginning of their generosity, 
for they supply his wants as well. It seems as though they 
had a grand, stupid fondness for the 
whole animal world. 

The pitch pine is rough and scraggly 
in appearance, and its light, reddish-brown 
timber is coarse and of slight value. But 
its wood contains an immense quantity of 
pitch, and so it is desirable for fuel and 
for making charcoal. It is also rich in 
tar and turpentine. Through the pine 
barrens of Long Island and especially of 
New Jersey where it forms the bulk of 
" the pines " it is well known. It grows 
rapidly and can sustain itself in soil where 
many others would die from a lack of 
nourishment. Even when cut down numerous and vigourous 
shoots often spring up from its stump. Occasionally the 
tree inhabits cold, deep swamps. About Cape Cod and on Nan- 
tucket a most interesting and successful experiment has been 
made in sowing its seeds. 

On February 27, 1855, Thoreau wrote in his journal : " A 
week or two ago I brought home a handsome pitch pine cone, 
which had freshly fallen and was closed perfectly tight. It 
was put into a table-drawer. To-day I am agreeably surprised 
that it has there dried and opened with perfect regularity, 
filling the drawer, and from a solid, narrow and sharp cone has 
become a broad, rounded, open one, has in fact expanded into 
a conical flower with rigid scales, and has shed a remarkable 




Plnus rigida. 



Staminatc branch. 




Enlarged staminate flower. Cone. 

PLATE CXXXIX. PITCH PINE. Pinus rigida. 
(257) 



258 TREES GROWING IN SANDY SOIL. 

quantity of delicate winged seeds. Each scale, which is very 
elaborately and perfectly constructed, is armed with a short 
spine pointing downward, as if to protect its seeds from squir- 
rels and birds. That hard, close cone, which defied all violent 
attempts to open it, and could only be cut open, has thus 
yielded to the gentle persuasion of warmth and dryness. 
" The expanding of the pine cones, that, too, is a season." 



RED 5PRUCE. {Plate CXZ.) 

Plcea rubens. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Pine. Pyramidal; branches, jo-ioofeet. Maine to Ga. "westward May, June, 

spreading, to Minnesota. 

Bark: reddish brown; scaly, or nearly smooth. Twigs: light green when 
young; slender; pubescent. Leaves: olive-green; simple; scattered closely 
along the branches; needle-shaped; straight or incurved above the middle; 
pointed or rounded at the apex; lustrous at maturity. Cones : from one to two 
and a half inches long; green, turning later to purplish brown; oval or ovoid, 
and falling at the end of the first season or during the winter. Scales: undu- 
late; often two-lobed. 

Although favouring gravelly slopes, the red spruce is also 
found in the forests along with the white pine, the balsam fir, the 
yellow birches and the sugar maples. It is most abundant in 
northern New England and New York. In fact it is the prin- 
cipal timber spruce of the northeastern United States. The 
dense groves often formed by it appear like waves of rich, dark 
colouring, and cast about deep and melancholy shadows. From 
the black spruce the tree is rather unsatisfactorily distinguished 
by the size and shape of its staminate blossoms and its cones. 
The latter are the larger of the two, and they mature and fall 
during their first winter. Those of the black spruce are often 
persistent for many years. Recent observations by Dr. Britton 
and by Prof. Peck, State botanists of New York, seem, however, 
to indicate that they are different forms of one species. The 
timber of the tree is similar to that of the black spruce. It is 
light and soft, closely grained, and has a beautiful surface like 
satin. For the flooring of houses it is much used. Paper pulp 




PLATE CXL. RED SPRUCE. Picea rubens. 
(259) 



260 TREES GROWING IN SANDY SOIL. 

is made from the wood, and much of the spruce beer that is 
manufactured owes its existence to this tree. In many places 
it springs up where once the white pine was known. 

NORWAY SPRUCE. {Plate CXLI.) 

Plcea excelsa. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Pine. Pyramidal ; branches, low, 50-120 feet. Widely cultivated. April, May. 
inclined to droop. 

Bark: greyish black; rough. Branchlets: brown; stout. Leaves: dark olive- 
green; simple; scattered singly and closely about all sides of the branches; 
needle-shaped; four-sided; slightly curved; sharp. Cones : five to seven inches 
long; reddish brown; almost cylindrical, and hanging from the ends of the 
branches. Scales: large; pointed. 

From the great forests of Norway this tree has been taken, 
and it is now so widely planted in this country that many re- 
gard it as a native. To all hardly any tree is more familiar, for 
its great size, its conspicuous cones and its 
drooping branches, with which it is often 
clothed to the ground, make it a marked 
figure anywhere. There are many vari- 
eties of it which are sold at the nurseries. 
From cultivation it sometimes escapes 
and apparently attempts to enjoy a state 
of freedom and abandon similar to that 
it has known in its native land. To 
watch the new leaves come on the 
spruces in the budding days of spring is a 
great delight. The extremities of all 
the branches are then tipped very deli- 
cately with a soft yellow-green, quite dif- 
ferent from the weather-beaten look of 
the rest of the foliage which has upheld 

Picea excelsa. - . , , , 

masses of ice throughout the winter. 
To the tree these young bits give a wonderful appearance of 
freshness and newness of life. 





Scale of con f 

PLATE CXLI. NORWAY SPRUCE. Picea excelsa. 
(261) 



Trees Preferring to Grow in Light or 

Dry Soil: Upland Places, Meadows and 

Roadsides. 

When low upon the meadows adjoining the roadsides hangs 
a mist so white as to suggest a phantom lake, and the air is 
chilled tvith a scent of moisture, then the time of the autumn 
haze has come. Through it dimly can be seen the outlines of 
trees. Trees at whose bases are soft beds of brown leaves. 
They have finished their work and their frolic with the high 
winds which have coaxed them away from the boughs. 
Grateful then must the trees feel to the mist that enshrouds 
them while grief for their loss is fresh, and before they have 
learned to silently appear naked before the winter. 

SNOWBERRY. CORAL-BERRY. INDIAN CURRANT. 

(Plate CXLII) 

Symphoricdrpos Symphoricdrpos. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Honeysuckle. Erects spreading. 2-5 feet. Ga. and No. Carolina July- 

northward. Fruit: Sept. 

Branches purplish brown : pubescent. Leaves : simple ; alternate ; with 
short petioles ; oval; blunt or rounded at both ends; entire; glabrous above 
and pubescent underneath. Flowers : growing in small, dense, axillary clusters 
not as long as the leaves. Calyx : four to five-toothed. Corolla : white or 
reddish; campanulate ; four to five-lobed. Stamens: included. Berries: 
bluish red; nearly globose and remaining on the branches after the leaves 
have fallen. 

After the glories of the summer and the early autumn have 
departed, with the humility of natural beauty the warm, richly- 
coloured berries of this shrub illumine the landscape. It 




PLATE CXLII. SNOWBERRY. Symphoricarpos Symphoricarpo 



COPYRIGHT, 100, BV FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 263 

seems as though their wealth of loveliness had been held in re- 
serve for a time when other things should have faded, and as a 
compensation for their rather insignificant showing of flowers 
in the spring. They cling to the bushes throughout the winter, 
and are truly snowberries, for of the earth's soft, white cloak 
they have no dread. 

In North Carolina the shrub is commonly seen, where it is 
much planted about old farmhouses. Bordering many of the 
drives of the Biltmore estate it is abundantly growing. The 
creeping roots of the shrub have a curious way of entangling 
themselves with other things, and not exactly respecting the 
laws of independence. On this account it has in some places 
been rather a nuisance on plantations, as is uniquely suggested 
to the mind by its name of " Devil's shoe strings." Not infre- 
quently the snowberry gleams from among rocks and by the 
banks of streams. 



SASSAFRAS. AGUE TREE. {Plate CXLIII) 
Sassafras Sassafras. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Laurel. Head, narrow, flat. i 5-50-90 fleet. Eastern Mass. south- April, May. 

ward and wesHvard. Fruit: A ug.-Oct. 

Bark : dark, reddish brown ; irregularly broken, and furrowed. Branchlets : 
yellowish grey when young, peeling readily; aromatic; mucilaginous. Leaves : 
simple; alternate; petioled ; entire or two to five-lobed ; ovate or obovate; 
when two-lobed usually mitten-shaped; the apex of the leaves and lobes 
bluntly pointed or slightly rounded ; taper-pointed at the base. Sinuses : when 
the lobes are present, rounded. Dark green; shiny, becoming soon glabrous 
and often sprinkled with pellucid dots. Flowers : dioecious ; greenish yellow ; 
growing in umbel-like clusters and appearing with the leaves. Calyx: six- 
lobed. Stamens: nine. Fruit: blue; growing on red pedicels; oval; one- 
seeded ; pungent. 

It is always pleasant to come upon the sassafras, either when 
it grows in rich woods or in the dry, well-drained soil of the 
roadsides. In the spring especially, its drooping clusters of 
flowers attract us, as they shine pure and white among its 
quaint and young, flushed leaves. The large buds and the bark 
of the crisp, green shoots are also enticing ; for they are gifted 




PLATE CXLIII. SASSAFRAS. Sassafras sassafras. 
(264) 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 265 

with a pleasant fragrance and spicy taste. About the foliage 
there is a wholesome, clean look, and in the autumn it turns to 
a delicate yellow and reddish hue. The brilliant fruit also adds 
greatly to its charm, but this is of short duration. The birds 
greedily devour it, as soon as its colour flashes upon their 
watchful eyes. 

The wood of the sassafras is brittle, but it is also durable. 
From the bark of its roots a powerful, aromatic oil is extracted 
which is largely used as a stimulant. It has now, however, 
lost the flavour it formerly had in the treatment of rheumatism. 
Although the tree is reported to grow to the height of one 
hundred and twenty-five feet, it is rather small at the north 
and often becomes a shrub. Even in winter the bright, lus- 
trous green is not driven from its twigs, and it is a cheery, en- 
couraging sight. 

WILD BLACK CHERRY. RUM CHERRY. CABINET 

CHERRY. (Plate CXLIV.) 

Primus serdtina. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Plum. Head, narrow ; branches, 50-90 feet. Southern Ontario to May, June. 

horizontal. Fla. and westward. Fruit: july-Seft. 

Bark : reddish brown or blackish ; rough and broken into plates ; becoming 
smoother towards the top of the tree. Branchlets : rich, reddish brown, and 
marked with tiny orange-coloured dots; aromatic; bitter. Leaves: simple; 
alternate ; oblong or oval-lanceolate ; taper-pointed at the apex and pointed or 
rounded at the base ; finely serrate, with small, incurved teeth ; at maturity 
glabrous; firm; glossy; the light coloured midrib very distinct. Flowers: 
white ; growing on pedicels in long, slender racemes which terminate leafy 
shoots. Calyx : bell-shaped ; five-lobed. Corolla : of five small petals. 
Stamens : numerous. Pistil : one. Fruit : almost black ; a small, round 
drupe ; vinous, although not disagreeable to the taste. 

Such a pretty point is brought to mind by the illustration of 
the black cherry. In early spring when the bloom unfolds, it 
is so soft and light that its stem holds it uprightly in the sur- 
rounding atmosphere ; but as it fades away and the rich, heavy 
fruit matures, the slender stalk is not equal to its weight. So it 
supplely bends and the clusters are seen drooping all through 




Enla rgtd flower. 

PLATE CXL IV. WILD BLACK CHERRY. Prunus serotina. 
(266) 







'.Ik 2k 


PI li* ^dW^P - 


|4^5Pb 


ML -** ^m* 


1 
f: \ 





PLATE CXLV. APPLE. Malus Malus. 



COPYRIGHT 1900, BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 



267 



the bright foliage of the tree. Unfortunately it is not very 
discriminating about its soil, but along the roadsides and in the 
woods and glades the tree is a familiar character. Especially 
towards the northern limit of its 
range it forms a quantity of shrubby 
growth by fences. Little boys and 
wayfarers enjoy eating the fruit, and 
in many farmhouses there is re- 
served for especial occasions, in the 
corner of some old cupboard, a bot- 
tle of cherry bounce. 

As a timber tree it is one of the 
most valuable of the American for- 
est, but it is now becoming scarce. 
It was at one time a most promi- 
nent feature of the woodlands on 
the slopes of the Alleghany moun- 
tains. In texture its wood is firm 
and durable with a satin-like sur- 
face which receives a high polish. In cabinet work it is most 
conspicuous. When first worked the wood is quite light, but 
it becomes darker with time and exposure. There is none 
that is better coloured. From the aromatic bark which con- 
tains a bitter element a tonic is prepared, and it is reported to 
possess considerable efficacy in the curing of pulmonary com- 
plaints. From the vivid green inner layer the bark peels 
readily. In the autumn the foliage turns to a bright, cheery 
yellow. 




Primus serdtina. 



APPLE. {Plate CXL V) 

Malus Malus. 



FAMILY 
Apple. 



SHAPE 

Round-topped, compact. 



HEIGHT 

15-35 /"'. 



RANGE 
Introduced. 



TIME OF BLOOM 
April, May. 



Bark: greyish. Leaves; simple; alternate; with woolly petioles; oval or 
ovate; bluntly pointed or rounded at the apex and rounded or cordate at the 
base; serrate, occasionally almost entire; bright green and nearly glabrous 



268 TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 

above, covered with a woolly down underneath. Flowers : white, tinted witi 
pink and growing in an umbel. Calyx : covered with tomentum when young. 
Fruit : large; globose; depressed at the apex and base. 

" Come, let us plant the apple-tree 
Cleave the tough greensward with the spade; 
Wide let its hollow bed be made; 
There gently lay the roots, and there 
Sift the dark mould with kindly care, 

And press it o'er them tenderly, 
As, round the sleeping infant's feet, 
We softly fold the cradle-sheet; 

So plant we the apple-tree." 

Bryant. 

When scattered over the country and in among the other trees 
there are those that appear like rosy-tinted snowballs, it is the 
time of the apple trees' blooming. From the swelling of their 
buds to the advent of the full-grown petals which quiver against 
the intense blue of the sky and exhale their faint perfume, the 
earth seems suddenly to have lost its wits in the excess of 
extravagance. But such a holiday mood could hardly be of 
long duration. There is work to be done, and fruit must grow 
and ripen. So the blossom storm carries away the dainty flecks 
of white, and sombreness comes back again. 

It is then the turn of the foliage to expand, to become dense 
and to provide shelter for the protection of the forming fruit. 

Although a cultivated tree, and one that has been introduced 
from Europe and western Asia, it lingers so often by the lanes 
and waysides of this country and its boughs of fruit so tempt- 
ingly appeal to the wayfarer that it has here been accorded a 
place. To study the trees and forget the common apple would 
be sad indeed. 




, JUNE-BERRY. Amelaxchter Canadensis. 
CLVI * " CHOKE-CHERRY. Prunus Virginian*. 



). BY FREDERICK A. S I OKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 



269 



JUNE-BERRY. 



SERVICE-BERRY. 

(Plate C XL VI.) 
Ameldnchier Canddcnsis. 



MAY-CHERRY. 



FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT 

Apple. Heady round-topped; 10-50 feet, or 
branches, spreading. higher. 



RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

New Found/and west- March-May. 
ward, southward to Fruit: June, July. 
Fla. and Louisiana. 



Bark: purplish brown; ridged. Bud-scales and bracts: sticky. Leaves: 
simple; alternate; slender petioled; ovate, with at times, bristle-pointed apex 
and rounded or slightly cordate base ; finely serrate ; dark green and dull 
above, paler below and becoming glabrous at maturity ; thick. Flowers ; 
white; large; growing in terminal, loose racemes and appearing before the 
leaves. Calyx : five-cleft. Corolla ; of five almost linear petals notched at the 
apex. Stamens : numerous. Pistils; numerous. Fruit: a small red or pur 
plish pome; sweet; edible. 

Even to those, and there are perhaps many, that walk 
through the woods and pastures without ever hearing the music 
passing through the tree-tops and quivering in the insects' 
wings, and whose eyes are never caught by the subtle unfold- 
ings of spring, the white bloom of the shad-bush, gleaming 
through the almost bare branches of other trees, must be an 
event in the year. There is no passing it by ; it is one of the 
spirits of nature that the dullest eye must see and admire. 
Even the pink of its buds is an exquisite 
tint. The fleecy white petals seem to wave 
and beckon in the breezes as though to 
attract the attention, and do so at a season 
of the year when there is little foliage to 
hide them from view. It is then that the 
knowing ones sigh as with relief and feel 
grateful that the spring is indeed on its 
way. The winter has passed ; the shad 
are running in the waters. All along the 
shrub is a leader of the seasons. As 
early as June its fruit becomes crimson, 
and at the approach of autumn the leaves turn bright yellow. 

The Indians and birds seem to vie with each other in their 
appreciation of the berries. Early they seek them. The 
birds to enjoy a feast and afterwards to scatter the seeds, and 




Ameldnchier Canddensis. 



270 TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 

the Indians to manipulate them into a sort of cake which they 
greatly relish and find wholesome. After the berries are 
crushed, they place them in the sunshine where they harden 
into a paste. This they prudently put by for use during the 
winter months. Along the Atlantic coast and through the 
Gulf states Amelanchier Botrgapium y the shad-bush, a related 
species, with broader, shorter petals, is only known as a shrub. 
The wood of Amelanchier Canadensis is fine and capable of re- 
ceiving a high polish. 

A. alnifolia, northwestern June-berry, occurs throughout the 
northwest as a shrub from three to eight feet high, or as a tree 
as tall as forty feet. Formerly it was regarded as a variety of 
the preceding species. Its shorter petals and more rounded 
fruit are marks by which it may be known. There are, in fact, 
several wild species of the genus whose differences are not 
very great. As a genus they are readily known. 

PEACH. {Plate CXL VII.) 
Amfgdalus Pirsica. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Plum. Scraggly. About \o feet. New York to North Afril, May. 

Carolina. 

Bark ; purplish brown; smooth ; bitter. Leaves ; simple ; alternate ; grow- 
ing in clusters along the stem and terminating the branches ; lanceolate ; finely 
serrate; bright green above and glabrous; thick; bitter and containing 
prussic acid. Flowers ; purplish pink; growing singly from scaly buds along 
the branches and appearing before the leaves ; almost sessile. Calyx : tubu- 
lar ; bell-shaped, with five spreading lobes. Corolla ; of five petals. Stamens : 
numerous on the throat of the calyx. Pistil : one. Fruit ; globular ; velvety 
and containing a deeply-wrinkled stone ; the kernel flavoured with prussic acid. 

Although in a truly wild state this lovely 
flowering tree is unknown, it sometimes strays 
from the gardens to the waysides. Here 
amid the medley of tender greens that stand 
out from a background of brown and purple 
and are tipped with golden, the brilliant 
masses of blossoms give a life and inspi- 
ration to the landscape that is typical of the 




A mjgdalus Pe'rsica. 




PLATE CXLVII. PEACH. Amygdalus Persica. 



COPVWtQHT, 1900, BT FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 



271 



springtime. Spring is, in fact, as the poets never grow tired of 
telling us, the time to enjoy the fullness of life in the country. 
Bowers of colour are everywhere, and what has been grey and 
apparently dead during the winter is budding. An old slanting 
roof within a small enclosure is transformed by the peaches' 
spray into a garden that rivals those of Japan. 

SILVER-LEAF POPLAR. WHITE POPLAR. ABELE. 

(Plate CXLVIII.) 

PopHlus dlba. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Willow, Tall % round-topped. 30-100 /iW. Introduced New Bruns- March-May. 

wick to Virginia. 

Bark : light grey ; furrowed at the base and becoming smoother towards the 
top. Buds : not glutinous. Leaves ; simple ; alternate ; with rounded and 
downy petioles ; rounded-ovate; cordate at the base, with from three to five 
pointed lobes ; finely serrate ; dark green and smooth above, white and cot- 
tony underneath. The young leaves covered with down on both surfaces. 
Staminate flowers ; growing in long, drooping catkins. 

The roadsides that have about them the greatest charm are 
those that are shady, and in summer time, when the sun is 
high, they are sought with gratitude by both man and beast. 
Often along their borders an introduced tree will be mingled 
with those that are natives ; sometimes this is so even in remote 
places, and far away from any habitation. This has been noticed 
about Populus alba. How has it come there is then wondered. 
To follow, however, in imagination one of its fine, tufted seeds 
as it is carried along by a playful breeze, is to find that al- 
though it may rest awhile in some nook to-day, to-morrow it 
will be taken up again, and perhaps again later, and may not 
reach its final destination until a considerable distance has 
been travelled. Much of the growth of this poplar that we 
ordinarily see, however, is from the innumerable suckers that 
spring up from the bases of the old trees, and which also mar 
the beauty of many that are younger. 

East of the Alleghanies the tree is very common. It grows, 
as well as in dry soil, by the side of streams and in moist 
woods. 




Pistillate branch. 



PLATE CXLVIII. SILVER-LEAF POPLAR. Populus alba. 
(272) 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 273 

As early as March the shining brown scales which cover its 
flower-buds begin to respond to the tempered atmosphere. 
Then they split open and are among the first to send into the 
world their grey and rosy-tinted offsprings. 

LOMBARDY POPLAR. (Plate CXLIX.) 
Popiilus dilatata. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Willow. Tapering; branches, 30-60 feet. Planted. AfiriL May 

perpendicular. J ' 

Bark : roughish. Branches ; growing closely together. Buds : possessing 
a glutinous substance, like balsam. Leaves : simple ; alternate ; with petioles 
which are flattened sidewise; very broadly oval ; pointed at the apex and at 
the base ; finely serrate ; smooth. Flowers : dioecious ; growing in catkins. 

As in the human family, we find that every tree has its own 
particular appearance, one to which it remains true both 
in sunshine and in shade. Even although it loses its leaves 
in winter time, its outline is then quite as well 
known to tree lovers as when it is fully clothed 
with verdure. In its manner of growth there is 
hardly any tree that is more distinct than the 
Lombardy poplar, and it is perhaps for this reason 
that it is so generally known. Constantly it is being 
referred to as though it were the only species of 
poplar in existence. About one hundred years ago 
it was imported from Italy and soon began to be 
much planted in this country. Through cultivation 
it has spread widely and also by the means it em- 
ploys of sending up shoots from its buried parts. p^'/Z 
At present it is not nearly so much seen as formerly ; dilatata. 
for insects have bored into its trunk and preyed greatly upon 
its foliage. In parts of New Jersey, where it was once almost 
as common as the indigenous trees, it is now rarely seen. 

Not by all is the symmetrical, uncompromising aspect of the 
tree admired, nor does its stiff outline blend with every variety 
of landscape; but it is beloved by many that have with it 





Pistillate branch. 

PLATE CXLIX. LOMBARDY POPLAR. Populus dilatata. 
(274) 



X 




p 



. 



1/ 






' 




r 


U 


V 


V 



PLATE CL, WHITE BIRCH. Betula popultfolta. 



COPYRIGHT, H00, BY FREDERICK A. STOKE* COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 275 

pleasant associations and again because it is a tree at once 
recognised. To know a tree does much in fact towards awak- 
ening the affections. 



AMERICAN WHITE BIRCH. OLD-FIELD BIRCH. 
GREY BIRCH. {Plate CL.) 

Bttula populifblia. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Birch. 


Pyramidal; branches^ 
often pendulous. 


15-40/"'. 


New Brunswick to 

Ontario^ southward 

to Delaware. 


May. 



Bark of trunk: chalky white; smooth; not peeling readily. Young 
branches ; rich, reddish brown, and spotted with wart-like dots. Buds ; ses- 
sile ; scaly. Leaves ; simple ; alternate ; with long, slender petioles ; some- 
times in pairs ; almost triangular ; pointed at the apex, and squared, roundei 
or pointed at the base ; unevenly serrate ; often becoming entire at the base ; 
bright green, lustrous and glabrous above, lighter underneath and almost 
glabrous at maturity. Flowers ; yellowish green ; growing in scaly catkins. 
Staminate ones ; from two to four inches long, and having three tiny flowers 
under each bract. Stamens : four ; short. Pistillate catkins ; with two to 
three bl ossoms under each bract. Ovaries; naked. Fruit; broadly winged. 

The white birch is one of the restless, short-lived spirits of 
the woodlands. It is delicate and beautiful with leaves almost 
as tremulous as those of the aspen. Through 
it, a stream of tenderness seems to flow, for 
its trunk too is flexible, and often during the 
winter bends under the load of ice it has to 
uphold. Its powers of endurance are greatly 
in contrast to those of many of the trees, the 
oaks especially. 

Of the birches of Eastern North America it 
is the smallest and least widely distributed. 
On lands that have been devoured by fire or 
those that have been abandoned by farmers, **i* **"&* 
it springs up quickly. In southern New England it is fre- 
quently found growing on the margins of swamps. Hardly a 
tree more graceful or sylph-like is known in cultivation, when 




276 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 



*m 



its white bark and exquisitely-shaped and fluttering leaves 
show to great advantage. 

Commercially it is not of any very great 
value. Its soft, weak wood is too perishable. 
Spools and barrel-hoops are made from it, 
and upon the hearth it finds a welcome 
place. 

Bitula pcnd-tila, weeping birch, is a Euro- 
pean species, which is extensively planted in 
this country. Its drooping branches and 
delicate, soft leaves are extremely attrac- 
tive. 




HOP-HORNBEAM. IRON-WOOD. 

(Plate CLI.) 
Ustrya Virgtnidna. 



LEVERWOOD. 



FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Birch. Head, round; branches, 2060 feet. From the north, sou*h- April, May. 

drooping at the ends. ward and "westward. Fruit: July, Sept. 

Bark: brownish; furrowed vertically, and scaly. Branchlets : purplish 
brown, and dotted with grey; lustrous. Leaves ; simple; alternate; with 
short, rough petioles ; oblong-lanceolate ; taper-pointed at the apex and 
rounded at the base ; often unequal ; doubly and sharply serrate; dark, yellow- 
green above ; almost smooth ; lighter coloured below and tufted in the axils of 
the straight veins. Flowers : growing in long catkins ; the staminate ones 
about two inches long, with scales fringed on the margins. Pistillate catkins : 
shorter. Fruit: green; growing in long, drooping, hop-like strobiles, with 
entire, overlapping scales, or sacs which are bristly at their bases. Nuts : 
flattened. 

Those that see this tree usually stop awhile and carefully 

regard its birch-like leaves and its swinging clusters of yellow 

tinted fruit. Both are very beautiful, but hardly more so 

than are its flower clusters when they begin to lengthen in 

early spring. It is said that the furrows on the bark of this 

tree are finer than those of any other with a rough bark, and 

that, as it grows older, this feature becomes more pronounced. 

It contains considerable tannin. The tree is very shapely 

and generally small. It is not common. For this reason its 

wood which is hard and strong and receives a high polish has 




Flowering branch. Branch in fruit. 



Pistillate flower. Nut and envolucre. 

PLATE CLI. HOP-HORNBEAM. Ostrya Virginiana. 
(277) 



278 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 



not the value to which it would be entitled if it could be pro- 
cured in larger quantities. 

All living in and about New York have an opportunity to 
study the tree as it has been most abundantly planted in 
Central Park. 



POST OAK. IRON OAK. BOX WHITE OAK. ROUND- 
LEAVED WHITE OAK. {Plate CLII.) 
Qudrcus minor. 



FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT 

Beech. Head, round, dense; io-\<x>-feet. 
branches, spreading. 



RANGE 

Mass. southward and 

westward to Indian 

Territory and Texas. 



TIME OF BLOOM 

May, June. 
Fruit: Sept., Oct. 



Bark : rather dark grey; rough but slightly so in comparison to other oaks, 
excepting the white oak. Leaves; simple; alternate; long-obovate; with 
rounded or wedge-shaped base, and having from three to seven variously 
shaped lobes, frequently spreading out at almost right angles from the midrib. 
At the apex they are lobed, or hollowed and become narrow or remain square 
at the base; dark green and shiny above with fine hairs, lighter coloured and 
downy underneath ; thick ; coarse. Flowers ; appearing before the leaves are 
partly grown. Staminate catkins; three or four inches long. Pistillate ones : 
sessile. Acorns : two or three growing on a short stem, or solitary, and 
almost sessile. Cup: deeply saucer-shaped, with small, lanceolate scales often 
fringed at the margin. Nut: small; dark brown, delicately striped and 
lustrous; oval; very sweet. 

What is the object, we sometimes 
wonder, to which trees direct their 
,.,. growth, and why are some of them 
'^-content to be low while others are lofty, 
and why do many remain weak when 
others grow strong ? It is not difficult 
to trace the aspirations of the oaks ; 
they are visibly for power and en- 
durance. Quercus minor displays it, in 
its compact, rough manner of growth, 
which is so noticeable that the tree 
could hardly be mistaken for a member' 
of any other genus. Its dark foliage 
too is ruggedly and distinctively cut. 
Throughout the south where the tree 





Staminate branch. 

PLATE CLII. POST OAK. Quercus minor, 
(279) 



2 8o TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 

is well known its wood is especially valued. For railroad ties, 
staves, cooperage, ship-building and many purposes it is used. 
In quality it is similar to that of the white oak, page 188, and in 
fact the trees were for a long time confused one with the other. 
Towards the western limit of its range it grows abundantly 
with Black-jack, Quercus Marylandica, and forms a belt which 
was familiarly known to early settlers of that part of the coun- 
try as " Cross Timbers." In New England the post oak often 
becomes a shrub, when its branches are low and contorted. 

BLACK-JACK. BARREN OAK. {Plate CL/II.) 
Quercus Maryldndica. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Beech. Head, irregular; branches^ 8-35-50 feet. Long Island south- May, June. 

stout, contorted. ward and west- Fruit: Oct., Nov. 

ward. 

Bark: blackish; rough; ridged and separating into close scales. Leaves: 
simple; alternate; broadly obovate; rounded or slightly cordate at the base, 
widening above the middle of the leaf and forming three or five very short, 
slight lobes; rounded at the apex or slightly pointed; bristle-tipped. Sinuses: 
shallow; dark green and glossy above with fine star-like hairs, covered with 
a rusty pubescence underneath when young, at maturity glabrous. Ribs : dis- 
tinct and branching conspicuously above the middle. Staminate catkins : two 
to four inches long; pubescent. Pistillate ones : growing on short peduncles 
and covered with a white wool. Acorns: small; ovoid; sessile or nearly so. 
Cup : deep ; top-shaped ; and covered with coarse, compressed scales ; 
pubescent. Nut : dark brown ; edible ; sweet. 

There is something very interesting about Black-jack. Per- 
haps it is its common name which fixes it so firmly in the 
memory and makes the tree an old friend after it has once been 
seen. Much character is displayed about its unusually shaped 
leaves, and although they have somewhat departed from the 
orthodox conception of beauty, they have a firm, broad out- 
line of their own. When they unfold in the spring they are 
bright pink on the upper side, a feature curious to recall when 
they have attained their large size and dark, lustrous greenness 
of maturity. Black-jack has a decided preference for dry, 
sterile soil. The wood it bears is dark brown and strong, but 
it checks badly in drying. It is therefore mostly used for fuel 
and for making charcoal. 




Staminate branch. 

PLATE CLIII. BLACK-JACK. Quercus Marylandica. 
(281) 



282 TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 

ROCK CHESTNUT OAK. SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK. 
CHESTNUT OAK. (Plate CLIV.) 

Qutrcus Prlnus. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Beech. Head, broad, irregular. 40-80-100 feet. Maine southward May, June. 

to Dei., Ky. Fruit: Oct., Nov. 
Tenn. and Ala. 

Bark: blackish or reddish brown; ridged and separating into close scales. 
Leaves : simple; alternate; broadly-obovate or oval, with bluntly pointed apex 
and rounded or slightly pointed base; evenly and crenately toothed, the teeth 
decreasing in size as they reach the apex; dark green and glabrous above, 
paler and downy underneath. Acorns: growing in pairs or solitary on a short 
peduncle. Cup : rounded; thick and covered with minute, thin scales. Nut: 
brown at maturity; long-ovate or ovoid; edible; slightly sweet. 

That the oaks are silent expressions of strength has been 
told in the folk-lore and poetry of every nation whose soil they 
inhabit ; but it was the Autocrat of the Breakfast Table who 
explained that while " others shirk the work of resisting 
gravity, the oak defies it. It chooses the horizontal direction 
for its limbs so that their whole weight may tell, and then 
stretches them out fifty or sixty feet, so that the strain may be 
mighty enough to be worth resisting. At 90 the oak stops 
short ; to slant upward another degree would mark infirmity 
of purpose ; to bend downward, weakness of organization." 

Of the latter tendency one would never suspect the rock 
chestnut oak, and few of its genus are constructed to display 
more vigour. It also lives to a venerable age and seems like 
the patriarch of the generation to the more perishable trees, 
the flowers and grasses that grow under its shade. The tree is 
known as an Appalachian one and makes, on the dry hillsides 
of Carolina and Tennessee, its best growth. Although its 
wood is not nearly so valuable as that of the white oaks, it 
has still a field of usefulness in the making of railroad ties 
and fences. From its bark an unusually large quantity of 
tannin is extracted. The tree was one of the first of the 
American oaks to be known in Europe. 




PLATE CUV. ROCK CHESTNUT OAK. Quercus Prinus. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, Br FREOERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN -ME RICA. 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL 283 

CHESTNUT OAK. YELLOW OAK. (Plate CLV.) 
Quircus acuminata. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Beech. Tall, straight: head, 40-80-160 feet. Vermont to northern May, June. 

narrow. Ala. and westward. Fruit: Oct., Nov 

Bark: light grey; broken into thin flakes. Branchlets ; marked with pale 
lenticels. Leaves: five to seven inches long ; simple ; alternate; petioled; at 
most an inch long ; lanceolate, or obovate with taper-pointed apex and pointed, 
wedged-shaped or blunt base; sharply and evenly serrate. Sinuses ; rounded. 
The veins extending from the midrib to the summit of the teeth. Yellow- 
green and glabrous above, silvery and slightly downy underneath. Staminate 
flowers : growing in catkins from three to four inches long. Pistillate ones : in 
short, sessile spikes. Acorns : small; sessile. Cup : round; broad; thin; the 
scales closely compressed. Nut: light brown; ovate; about one -third covered 
by the cup ; edible ; sweet. 

Those that have paid little or no attention to the trees, ex- 
cepting perhaps to regard them as affording a gracious and 
wholesome shade, are invariably surprised when their interest 
in them is quickened to see how exquisite are many of the 
blossoms with which they are hung in the spring. Then it is a 
revelation that the long yellow clusters, looking like bits of 
string, which dangle from this great oak are in reality its stami- 
nate flowers. In this way many of them grow snugly together. 
The pistillate blossoms are congregated in more compact clus- 
ters, and, as in many monoecious trees, they are located near 
the tips of the lower boughs. From the top-most branches 
the staminate ones sway. That their respective positions are 
such is another illustration of Nature's theory that nothing is 
insignificant. When the breezes bend the tree-tops the pollen 
is shaken out, and its natural fall is then downward upon the 
pistillate ones which eagerly arrest its flight. 

This chestnut oak is a beautiful and mightytree, with a pale, 
almost white bark. Its long leaves hang closely to the branches 
and resemble, in general outline, those of the true chestnut. 
That is when it grows in the Atlantic states, where it is some- 
what rare and local. West of the Alleghanies it inhabits rich 
bottom lands. Its leaves then are very variable. In their 
broadest forms, with their teeth considerably rounded, they 




Staminatt branch. 

PLATE CLV. CHESTNUT OAK. Ouercus acuminata. 
(284) 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 285 

closely resemble those of Qucrcus JPrinus. But the difference in 
the quality and colouring of the bark of the two trees would 
prevent their being mistaken for one another. 

The wood of Quercus acuminata is used in cooperage. 

BLACK-HAW. STAG-BUSH. {Plate CLVI) 
Vibiirnum prunifblium. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Honeysuckle. Low % branching. \$-iofeet. Conn, and N. Y. to Fla. May. 

and Texas. Fruit : Sept. 

Wood: reddish brown; hard. Leaves : simple; opposite; with short, slightly 
or rarely margined petioles with straight edges; broadly oval, or obovate; 
pointed or blunt at the apex and base; very variable; finely serrate; the teeth 
sharp; glabrous; lustrous. Flowers: white; small; perfect; growing in com- 
pound, sessile cymes at the ends of the branches. Fruit : dark blue ; oval ; 
glaucous ; edible; sweet. 

Just before the earth begins to grow green and tiny leaves 
venture to show themselves and to shiver, there is about it 
something very clean and russet looking. Everywhere small 
harbingers of spring are peeping out, and they seem to enjoy hav- 
ing things pretty much their own way. Later in the season we 
owe an abundance of bloom to the Viburnums. Throughout 
the north the black-haw is most frequently found as a low, 
branching shrub of about six, eight or twelve feet high. Its 
leaves are smaller than those of Viburnum lentago, page 82, and 
the differences in the margins of the petioles serve as a means 
of their identification. Its cymes of flowers stand out well from 
the leaves. Besides these particular features the shrub is one 
that grows in dry soil. 

V. acerifblium, maple-leaved arrow-wood, or dockmaxie, is a 
shrub of about six feet high. Its bloom broad cymes of small 
white flowers which grows on long peduncles, is very familiar 
to us in the early days of spring - , and later its bright crimson 
drupes, turning eventually to black, are very noticeable. The 
leaves might be mistaken, and frequently are, for those of a 
young maple tree. In dry or rocky woods, or abundantly along 
shady roadsides, the plant is found. 




Enlarged floiver. 

PLATE CLVI. BLACK-HAW. Viburnum prunifolium. 
(286) 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 287 

STAGHORN SUriAC. VINEGAR TREE. {Plate CL VII.) 

Rhus hirta. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Sumac. Umbrella-like. 10-40 feet. New Brunswick westward^ June. 

southward to Alabama. Fruit: Aug.-Oct. 

Bark: dark brown; smooth. Inner bark: yellow. Branchlets and leaf- 
stems: covered thickly with a velvety, crimson down. Juice: milky; viscid, and 
turning black with exposure to the atmosphere. Leaves ; compound ; alternate; 
with stout stalks, reddish on their upper sides ; odd-pinnate with from eleven to 
thirty-one, narrowly oval, sessile leaflets ; taper-pointed at the apex and cordate 
or rounded at the base ; evenly and sharply serrate. When unfolding covered 
underneath with reddish hairs and becoming nearly white and glabrous at 
maturity. Flowers: yellowish green ; growing in large, dense, terminal pani- 
cles, the fertile ones forming those that are the most compact. Berries : bright 
crimson; rounded or flattened and covered with long, reddish hairs; acrid; not 
poisonous. 

Over the surrounding green of summer there is a warmth and 
richness of colour cast by the splendid hue of this plant's fruit, 
and the young growth of the tree is a vivid, bright red. This is, 
in fact, one of the beautiful and very noticeable small trees of 
the waysides and rocky thickets. Not 
infrequently, however, it descends to a 
shrub. The straggling and uneven 
growth of the tree, as it thrusts the 
ends of its branches outward, repre- 
sent somewhat the horns of a stag, 
and they are similarly covered with a 
velvety coating. The name vinegar 
tree is due to the acidity of its fruit 
and twigs, which is the outcome 
of the innumerable fine hairs which Rkashtrta. 

cover them. From the young shoots the pith can readily be 
removed, and quills are thus made with which to draw out the 
sap of maple trees in the spring-time. Little country boys, 
however, convert them into pin or putty blowers, and, at the 
expense of the enemy, amuse themselves highly. Both the 
bark and the leaves of the tree are rich in tannin. Through 
the wood large ducts can be seen which designate clearly the 
annual layers of its growth. 





PLATE CLVII. STAGHORN SUMAC. Rhus hirta. 
(288) 




PLATE CLVIII. SMOOTH UPLAND SUMAC. Rhus glabra. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, Br FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 289 

SMOOTH UPLAND SUMAC. SCARLET SUHAC. 

(Plate CL VII 7.) 

Rhiis glabra. 



FAMILY 


8HAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Sumac. 


Spreading, bushy. 


2-20 feet. 


Maine southward to 
Fla. and westward. 


June- A ug. 



Along the waysides and hugging the borders of fields this 
sumac raises itself so lustily and so often that there are few 
among us to whom it is not familiar. Too frequently, the ban 
of being poisonous is placed upon it, and this, it must be re- 
gretted, is the outcome of a melancholy lack of observation. 
The sharply serrated leaves, the terminal growth and shape of 
the closely packed bunches of beautiful, crimson fruit, are ever 
ready to help us in distinguishing it from the deadly poisonous 
sumac, Rhus vernix^ which inhabits the swamps. It is interest- 
ing to notice in this species, as also in the staghorn sumac, 
that sometimes the whole or part of the flower-cluster has 
not been transformed into flowers, but has remained as smalt 
green leaves. 

AILANTHUS. CHINESE SUMAC. TREE-OF-HEAVEN. 

(Plate CLIX.) 
Aildnthus glandulbsa. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Ailanthus. Round-topped, 40-90 feet. Escaped from cultivation. June. July, 

spreading. Fruit: Oct. 

Bark : brown ; smooth. Branchhts : covered with whitish dots. Leaves : 
very large; compound; alternate; odd-pinnate; with from seventeen to 
forty-one leaflets, with short petiolules ; the odd one often absent or 
dwarfed and coarsely toothed. Leaflets : lanceolate or long ovate ; taper- 
pointed at the apex, and squared or slightly cordate at the base ; entire, with 
one or two blunt teeth at each side near the base ; feather-veined; bright 
green above, lighter below; thin and almost glabrous. Flowers: small; 
greenish yellow ; growing in terminal, compound panicles. Calyx : of five 
minute sepals. Corolla : of five petals. Stamens : in sterile flowers, ten. 
Fertile flowers : with from two to five ovaries. Samaras: flat; the seeds 
growing in the centre of the thin, membranous wing. 

The generic and Asiatic name of this remarkable tree is 
from " ailanto," which means, Tree of Heaven, and by the 



290 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 



Chinese in whose country it is a native, it is regarded with 
much affection. A Jesuit missionary is credited with having, 
in 1761, first sent its seeds to England. A little over thirty 
years later it was brought to America and took root near 
Philadelphia. Since then it has been considerably planted. 

In parts of Long Island, New York 
and New Jersey it is abundant. 
The tree is of striking, majestic 
presence, and its long, wand-like 
stems of leaflets form a responsive 
playing-ground for the breezes. 
When in full bloom the flowers have 
a feathery, fine appearance, but 
they are not handsome. Their 
odour also, and it is that of the 
staminate ones, is generally thought 
to be very disagreeable. They ex- 
hale one of the heavy, oppressive 
scents which close upon the atmos- 
phere and prevent many from 
breathing it without feeling some physical distress. After the 
bloom has passed, however, the tree is without objectionable 
features. 

When the great bunches of samaras begin to ripen, the pis- 
tillate trees are most conspicuous. From a summer green they 
vary in colour to red, and in drying they turn to a soft shade of 
tan. Often trees hung with red samaras and others hung with 
green ones stand side by side. The ailanthus seeds itself readily 
and is also reproduced by abundant suckers which arise from 
its base. In cultivation, where a fine, waving effect of shrub- 
bery is desired, it can be gained by keeping the main stems of 
the trees cut down and allowing these shoots to grow to their 
utmost height. 





PLATE CLIX. AILANTHUS. Ailanthus glandulosa. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, Y FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY. 
PAINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 291 

PIG-NUT. BROOM HICKORY. (Plate CLX.) 
Hicbria glabra. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Walnut. Head y narrow; branches^ 60-90-120 feet. Maine westward April. 

slightly pendulous. and to Fla. and Fruit: Oct., Nov, 

Texas. 

Bark: light grey; close, not shaggy. Leaves: compound; alternate; odd- 
pinnate ; growing on smooth stalks and having from five to nine sessile leaf- 
lets, which are oblong, long-pointed at the apex and wedge-shaped, pointed or 
rounded at the base; the lower pair of leaflets much smaller than the others; 
sharply serrate ; thick ; dark yellowish green, and glabrous on the upper side 
at maturity ; slightly tufted in the angles of the ribs on the under sides. 
Flowers: greenish yellow; growing in catkins. The staminate ones, three to 
seven inches long ; the pistillate ones growing in spikes with from two to five 
flowers. Fruit : with a globose, or pear-shaped husk which is thin and splits 
open only at the apex, or to about the middle. Nut : oblong, with a smooth, 
unridged shell ; thin. Kernel : small ; very bitter. 

All undoubtedly know the pig-nut, for it is generally im- 
pressed upon us by experience ; and to the mind clings the re- 
membrance of early days when its nuts were eaten in error for 
those of the good, old shagbark. Their bitter, disappointing 
flavour vaguely touches the palate with the very name of pig- 
nut. Throughout the northern states the tree is common and 
well known. 

Commercially its strong, tough and flexible wood is not dis- 
tinguished from that of the shell-bark hickories. For the 
handles of tools, agricultural implements and the making of 
many similar articles, it is useful. 

H0R5E CHESTNUT. (Plate CLX/.) 
sculus Hippocastanum. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Soapberry. Rounded^ compact. ->p-\ofeet. Introduced. May, June. 

Bark : brownish. Leaves : palmately-compound ; opposite ; and having 
five, or more often seven long, oval leaflets ; abruptly pointed at the apex and 
tapering at the base; ribs straight ; the edges scalloped and toothed. When 
young pubescent with a brown wool. Flowers: large; cream-white, spotted 
with yellow and purple, and growing in a terminal thysus. Calyx five-cleft. 
Corolla: of five spreading petals raised on short claws. Stamens: seven; ex- 
serted, with orange-coloured anthers. Pistil : one ; included. Fruit ; a 
round, green, prickly husk which encloses within its valves one or two nuts. 
Nut : mahogany colour; with a white scar on one side ; lustrous when young, 
but becoming dull and wrinkled with age. Kernel : aromatic ; poisonous and 
having a strong odour. 




Pistillate Stmminate 
Jlower. /lower. 



PLATE CLX. PIG-NUT. Hicoria glabra. 
(292) 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 293 

Throughout its entire career there is something very charac- 
teristic about the horse chestnut tree. The large, silky leaf- 
buds remind us of those of the magnolia as they unfold in the 
early spring, and as from them the beautifully formed leaflets 
begin to grow, we continue to notice how individual is the 
whole aspect of the tree. Everything that it does appears to 
be well planned and regular. The exquisite bunches of flowers 
have a unique way of pointing upward, and the fragrance that 
emanates from them is as good a guide to the tree's locality, as 
to see their shimmering light. Again 
the mahogany-coloured nut with its white A^^^^^^i 
scar is as unmistakable as the piebald * ^Sj^p-'^S? 3 ^ 
horse of one's neighbour. It is rather ^^^^^^^O^^ 
disappointing to attempt to eat its abun- 
dant meat; for it is intensely bitter, al- 
though it is not, as has been thought by J^SSS^SSliS^E? 
many, poisonous. In fact, on the con- 
tinent, cattle, sheep and pigs are fed upon 
the nuts, and rooks devour them with 

Msculus Htppochstanum. 

avidity. They are moreover not without 

efficacy of another sort, for an ancient superstition assures us 
that to carry one constantly in the pocket will prevent rheu- 
matism from attacking the wearer. 

The flowers of this tree appear to have been especially de- 
signed to suit the convenience of the bumble-bee that visits 
them so frequently. The protruding stamens and style do 
not interfere with him as he alights on the petals; he only 
brushes them a little with his under part and covers himself 
with pollen. His legs fit well into the spaces between the 
petals, and he is therefore able to settle himself quite comforta- 
bly. He then thrusts his proboscis into the honey-holding sac 
at the base of the flower, quickly draws it out and is away to 
another one. The rapidity with which he accomplishes this 
is truly astonishing. It is the work of only a very few seconds. 

Although well known in this country the tree is not a native. 





PLATE CLXI. HORSE CHESTNUT. ^Esculus Hippocastanum. 

(294) 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 295 

By Professor Sargent it is said to be indigenous in the moun- 
tains of northern Greece. As a timber tree it is practically 
worthless. Buds, page 30. 

Jlsculus rubicknda, red horse chestnut, is cultivated mostly 
for ornament, and for the sake of the contrasting colours of their 
flowers it is planted by the side of ^Esculus Hippocastanum. 
The deep pink of its blossoms mingling with the bright green 
of its leaves, spotted here and there with red, is very lovely. 
The tree is never tall, sometimes hardly more than a shrub. 
Each flower has but four slightly spreading petals. Generally, 
it is thought to be a hybrid between the horse chestnut and 
Aisculus Pavia, red buckeye. This latter plant bears bright 
red flowers, and usually occurs as a shrub. Its best growth is 
in Virginia and southward. 

HICKORY PINE. TABLE-MOUNTAIN PINE. PRICKLY 
PINE. (Plate CLXII.) 

Plnus phngens. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

Pine. Head, narrow ; branches, 1060 feet. N. J. and Penn. to May. 

short, ascending. No. Carolina and 

Tenn. 

Bark : reddish brown ; when old, rough and broken into plate-like scales. 
Leaves: dark bluish green; seldom over two inches long; simple; growing 
closely along the branches in bunches of two or sometimes three, and having 
sheaths at their bases ; needle-shaped, the outer side round and smooth, the 
inner side grooved; stiff. Staminate flowers : growing in long spikes. Pistillate 
ones : clustered in the young cones. Cones : pale, reddish yellow; three to four 
inches long ; oblong or ovate ; sessile, and frequently growing in clusters of 
four or more; heavy. Scales; woody, with a hooked spine nearly an inch long. 

The great pines, so simple in construction, must always inter- 
est us, and from the larches, the firs, the cedars and the spruces, 
which also are members of the family coniferae, we readily dis- 
tinguish them because their leaves, although varying greatly in 
length, are needle-shaped and grow in clusters of from two to 
five. At their bases they are sheathed, or held together by a 
thin, membranous scale. When pressed together they form a 
cylinder. 





Envolucre of Winged 
staminate Jloiver, seed, 
enlarged. 

PLATE CLXII. HICKORY PINE. Ptnus pungens. 

(296) 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 297 

Pinus pungens has a rather limited range. Its cones are very 
abundant and beautiful. After fertilization has taken place, 
and their scales have closed to protect the young and forming 
seeds, it is astonishing how hard and heavy they are found to 
be when taken in the hand. Almost they appear like bits of clay. 
Light brown and coarsely grained wood is produced by the 
tree, and it is soft and brittle. In Pennsylvania it is largely 
made into charcoal. 

COMMON JUNIPER. GROUND CEDAR. (Plate CLXIII.) 

Juniper us communis. 

FAMILY SHAPE HEIGHT RANGE TIME OF BLOOM 

>a Scotia southward April, May. 
and westward. Fruit: Oct. 



Pine. Low, broad, spreading. 20-25 feet. Nova Scotia southward April, May. 

Frv 



Bark: reddish brown and separating into thin, papery sheets. Leaves : sim- 
ple ; linear-lanceolate or awl-shaped ; spreading and growing in whorles of 
three up and down the slender branchlets ; rigid; sharply pointed; channelled; 
dark yellow-green and glaucous on the upper side; astringent. Berries : large ; 
sessile ; bluish grey ; glaucous ; fragrant when dried ; sweet. 

By Professor Sargent it is said that Juniperus communis is 
the most widely distributed tree of the northern hemisphere 
It occurs in Europe and Asia also. In India its twigs are 
burned as incense, and its berry-like cones are employed in the 
practice of medicine. In this country the latter are considera- 
bly used to flavour gin, and they take in New England fully 
three years in which to mature. The tree is erect with an irregu- 
larly shaped head, and it is not infrequently found growing 
by the side of Juniperus Virginiana. Juniperus nana, the low 
juniper, thrives in pastures and on dry hillsides as a shrub, 
when its branches grow low, often closely to the ground. 

" The birch-tree swung her fragrant hair, 

The bramble cast her berry, 
The gin within the juniper 

Began to make him merry. 
The poplars, in long order due, 

With cypress promenaded, 
The shock-head willows two and two 

By rivers gallopaded." Tennyson. 




PLATE CLXIII. COMMON JUNIPER. Juniperus communis. 
(298) 




PLATE CLXIV. RED CEDAR, funiperus Virgintana. 

COPYRIGHT, 100, BY FREDERICK A. STOKE* COMPANY. 

PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 



299 



RED CEDAR. SAVIN. {Plate CLXIV.) 
Juniperus Virginiana. 



FAMILY 


SHAPE 


HEIGHT 


RANGE 


TIME OF BLOOM 


Pine. 


Conic, irregular when 
old. 


15-30-100 feet. 


General. 


April, May. 
Fruit : Sept., Oct. 



Bark : reddish brown, and separating into long shreds. Inner bark: smooth ; 
polished. Leaves ; minute; dull green ; simple ; opposite in pairs ; ovate ; over- 
lapping each other, and growing in four rows on the rather square, fine branch- 
lets; stiff; sharp. When young the leaves spread out somewhat from the 
branches, which are then more rounded, and are needle-shaped. When pulled 
away from the branch it can be seen that they grow in pairs, or sometimes threes. 
Berries: small; bluish grey ; growing erectly and closely along the branchlets. 

From the coloured plate something of the beauty of the pistil- 
late cedar tree may be gathered when its olive-green foliage is 
alive with the brightness of its 
Derries. The staminate trees are 
of a rather rusty brown tone, and 
although they are not generally 
regarded as attractive, there are 
many that delight in their unsym- 
metrical and rather weird style 
of growth. The tree, as Juni- 
perus communis, is more widely 
distributed than any other con- 
iferous one of North America. 
Its versatility and knack of adapt- 
ing itself to various conditions 
of climate and soil are truly 
wonderful. From a low bush it 
ranges in size to a great tree with 

a fine, straight trunk, and it is either pyramidal or rounded. 
Throughout New England and New Brunswick it favours dry 
soil ; in the valleys of Pennsylvania it seeks that which is 
alluvial. On the limestone hills of Kentucky and Tennessee 
are the "cedar brakes"; while in Florida the tree grows to 
a great size in swamps and in bottom lands. Throughout the 




Juniperus Virginiana. 



3 oo TREES GROWING IN DRY SOIL. 

Rocky mountains, in the extreme northwest and in southern 
California it seeks such haunts as suit its fancy. 

The formal outline of the tree is valuable in landscape gar- 
dening when it is desired to produce rugged effects. Often we 
then see it cut into fantastic shapes, a trick learned from the 
Japanese by the Dutch, and it is sufficiently hardy to stand well 
this suppression of its natural growth. 

For a long time the Indians have delighted in its bright red, 
fragrant and spicy wood which does not decay, and, as it is ob- 
jectionable to moths, cedar chests and closets are appreciated 
by thrifty housewives. Its principal use, however, is in the 
making of lead pencils. Of the heterogeneous community that 
daily wields thousands of them, it is a matter of interest to 
wonder how many ever cast a glance of recognition, or expend 
a thought upon the tree that has so abundantly yielded of its 
best. 



Miscellaneous Index. 



Acorn, Cup of, 243. 

Ash, Mythological Legend concerning, 

221. 
Ashes, Staminate and Pistillate, 97. 
" Red and Green, Similarity 
between, 97. 

Buckeye State, The, 147. 

Coniferous Trees, Early, 246. 
Cotyledons, Thickening of Oak, 245. 
Cross Timbers, 280. 

Elms, Historical, 1 20-1 21. 
" being dioecious, 121. 

Hawthorns, disagreeable odour of, 

165. 
Hickories, Leaf-buds of, 220. 

Galls, 134. 

Locust Tree, ravaged by insects, 207. 

Magnolia, Fertilization of, 38. 
" Useful wood of, 39. 

" Historical, 39. 

Maple Sugar, the Making of, 197. 
Maples, Autumn Colouring of, 204. 
" Introduced, 204. 
" Red, Earliest Signs of Spring, 
S3- 

Needles, those of Spruces and Firs, 
231. 



Oak- Apples, 134. 

Oaks, differences between Black and 
Scarlet, 245. 

Oaks, Growth of Pistillate Flowers, 
243- 

Oak branches, angle of, 282. 

Oak Grove at Dodona, 188. 

Oaks, Number indigenous to Amer- 
ica, 241. 

Oak, Notable Red, 192. 
" Openings, 132. 

Oaks, Location of Flowers, 283. 

Opportunity, 154. 

Outlines of Trees, 229. 

Pines, Heart- Wood of, 251. 
" Means of distinction, 295. 
" Pitch, 256. 
'* Resin found in, 249. 

The, 256. 
" Simplicity of Organs of, 246. 
Pine, White, Historical incident, 225. 
Poplars, Flower-buds of, 115. 

" Mythological Legend con- 
cerning, 238. 
Poplar, Notable Tree, 74. 

" Seeds, 74. 
Poplars, Sheen of, 186. 

Quills for Maple Sap, 287. 

Silkworms, Leaves fed to, 13a 
Sumac, Poisonous, 88. 



3 o2 MISCELLANEOUS INDEX. 

Tulip Tree, Notable, 187. Willows, Number of Species of, 54. 

Turpentine, The making of, 254. " Natural habitat of, 54. 

u Basket work made from, 68. 

Willows, Those Native and Intro- Hoops made from, 66. 

duced, 56. Seeds of, 74. 

Willow Catkins, 57 Sheen of, 186. 
" Historical Weeping, 64. 



Index to English Names. 



Abele, 271. 
Acacia, False, 205. 

" Rose, 208. 

" Three-Thorned, 209. 
Ague Tree, 263. 
Ailanthus, 289. 
Alder, Black, 44. 

" Hoary, 50. 

" Smooth, 52. 

" Speckled, 50. 
Alligator Tree, 136. 
Apple, 267. 

" Custard, III* 
Arbor- Vitae, 103. 
Arrow-Wood, Maple-Leaved, 285. 
Ash, Biltmore, 142. 

Black, 92. 

" Blue, 223. 

" Green, 97. 

" Hoop, 92. 

" Mountain, American, 140. 

" " Elder-Leaved, 141. 

" " European, 141. 

" Western, 141. 

" Poison, 88. 

" Red, 95. 

" Water, 92. 

- White, 220. 
Aspen, American, 238. 

" Large-Toothed, 183. 
Asp, Quaking, 238. 
Azalea, Smooth, 152. 
Tree, 152. 



Balm of Gilead, 72. 
Basswood, 153. 

M White, 156. 

Bay, Bull, 37 . 

M Sweet, 39. 
Bean Tree, 195. 
Bee-Tree, Linden, 156. 
Beech, American, 174. 

" Blue, 52. 

" Copper, 175. 

" European, 175. 

" Water, 52. 
Bilsted, 136. 
Birch, American White, 275. 

" Black, 177. 

" Canoe, 175. 

" Cherry, 177. 

" Grey, 179. 

" Grey, 275. 

" Old-Field, 275. 

" Paper, 175. 

" Red, 48. 

u River, 48. 

" Sweet, 177. 

" Weeping, 276. 

" White, 175. 

" Yellow, 179. 
Bitter-nut, 89. 
Black-Haw, 285. 
Black-jack, 280. 
Bladder-nut, Western, 144. 
Buckeye, Big, 146. 

" California, 149. 



34 



INDEX TO ENGLISH NAMES. 



Buckeye, Fetid, 147. 


Cucumber Tree, 150. 


" Ohio, 147. 


* " Yellow, 152. 


" Purple Sweet, 147. 


Cypress, 99. 


" Red, 295. 


" Bald, 99. 


" Sweet, 146. 




" Yellow, 146. 


Date-Plum, 233. 


Button-Ball Tree, 47. 


Dockmaxie, 285. 


Butternut, 213. 


Dogwood, Alternate-Leaved, 194. 


Button- Wood, 47. 


" False, 202. 


Candle-Tree, 195. 


" Flowering, 192. 


Caper Tree, Jamaica, 112. 


" Panicled, 195. 


Catalpa, 195. 


" Poison, 88. 


Cedar, Ground, 297. 


" Red-Osier, 195. 


" Red, 299. 


" Round-Leaved, 195. 


" Southern White, 101. 


* Striped, 202. 


M White, 103, 




Cherry, Bird, 156. 


Elder, 144. 


" Cabinet, 265. 


Elderberry, 146. 


" Choke, 46. 


Elder, Box, 90. 


M Perfumed, 157. 


" Poison, 88. 


u Pigeon, 156. 


" Sweet, 146. 


" Pin, 156. 


Elk-Wood, 108. 


" Rum, 265. 


Elm, American, 120. 


u Wild Black, 265. 


" Corky White, 122. 


" Wild Red, 156. 


" English, 124. 


Chestnut, American, 173. 


" False, 126. 


" Horse, 291. 


" Hickory, 122. 


" Red Horse, 295. 


" Moose, 122. 


Chinquapin, 174. 


" Red, 122. 


Coffee-Tree, Kentucky, 211. 


" Rock, 122. 


Cornel, 194. 


" Slippery. 122. 


195- 


" Winged, 122. 


Cornelian Tree, 192. 


" White, 120. 


Coral-Berry, 262. 




Cottonwood, 74. 


Filbert, 181. 


" Narrow-Leaved, 115. 


Fir, Balm of Gilead, 231. 


" River, 70. 


" Balsam, 231. 


" Swamp, 70. 


" Fraser's Balsam, 232. 


Cranberry Tree, 83. 


Fringe Tree, Common, 80. 


Crab-apple, American, 159. 




" Narrow-Leaved, 159. 


Gum, Black, 40. 


Crab Tree, Sweet Scented, 159. 


" Hog, 38. 



INDEX TO ENGLISH NAMES. 



3o5 



Gum, Sour, 40. 

" Star-Leaved, 136. 
" Sweet, 136. 

Hackberry, 126. 
Hackmatack, 105. 
Haw, 236. 
" Pear, 165. 
" Red, 163. 
Hawthorn, 163. 
Hazel-Nut, 181. 

" Beaked, 183. 
Hemlock, 226. 

" Carolina, 227. 

Hickory, Broom, 291. 

" Fragrant, 214. 

" Shag-Bark, 216. 

" Shell-Bark, 216. 

" Big Shell-Bark, 218. 

" Small-Fruited, 220. 

" Swamp, 89. 

u " 90. 

" Water, 90. 

" White-Heart, 214. 
Hobble-Bush, 83. 
Holly, American, 117. 

" Large- Leaved, 118. 
Honey Shucks, 209. 
Hop-Hornbeam, 276. 
Hornbeam, American, 52. 

Indian Bean, 195. 

" Larger, 196. 

Indian Currant, 262. 
Ironwood, 52. 
" 276. 

Judas-Tree, American, 113. 
June-Berry, 269. 
June-Berry, Northwestern, 270. 
Juniper, Common, 297. 
" Low, 297. 

King Nut, 218. 



Larck, American, 105. 
Leverwood, 276. 
Linden, American, 153. 

" European, 156. 
Locust, Bristly, 208. 

" Clammy, 207. 

" Honey, 209. 

" Moss, 208. 

" Tree, 205. 

" Western, 140. 

" Yellow, 205. 

Magnolia, Great-Flowered, 37. 
" Laurel, 39. 

" Mountain, 150. 

" Small, 39. 

Mahaleb, 157. 
Mahogany, California, 234. 
Maple, Ash-Leaved, 90. 

" Bird's-eye, 198. 

" Black Sugar, 198. 

" Blood-Leaved Japanese, 204. 

M Curled, 198. 

" Goosefoot, 201. 

" Hard, 197. 

" Mountain, 202. 

" Norway, 204. 

Red, 83. 

" Rock, 197. 

" Scarlet, 83. 

" Silver, 86. 

" Soft, 83. 

" Soft, 86. 

" Striped, 201. 

" Sugar, 197. 

11 Swamp, 83. 

" White, 86. 
May-Cherry, 269. 
Mocker-nut, 214. 
Moose Wood, 201. 
Mulberry, Paper, 130. 
" Red, 128. 

" White, 130. 



306 



INDEX TO ENGLISH NAMES. 



Nanny Berry, 82. 
Nettle-Tree, 126. 

Oak, Barren, 28a 

" Black, 245. 

" Box White, 278. 

" Burr, 132. 

" Chestnut, 283. 

" Iron, 278. 

" Laurel, 80. 

" Live, 240. 

" Mossy-Cup, 132. 

" Over-cup White, 132. 

" Peach-leaved, 78. 

" Pin, 133. 

M Post, 278. 

" Red, 191. 

" Rock Chestnut, 282. 

" Round-Leaved White, 278. 

" Scarlet, 243. 

" Shingle, 80. 

M Spanish, 242. 

M Swamp Chestnut, 282. 

M Swamp Spanish, 133. 

M Swamp White, 76. 

" Water, 89. 

" Water, 133. 

" White, 188. 

" Willow, 78. 

" Yellow, 283. 

" Yellow-Bark, 245. 
Oilnut, 213. 
Old Man's Beard, 80. 
Osier, Golden, 66. 

Pa paw, North American, in. 
Peach, 270. 
Pecan, Bitter, 90. 
Pepperridge, 40. 
Persimmon, 233. 
Pig-nut, 291. 
Pine, Canadian, 249, 
" Candlewood, 25$. 



Pine, Bank's, 246. 
" Bull, 254. 
" Georgia, 253. 
" Grey, 246. 
" Hickory, 295. 
" Jersey, 251. 
" Labrador, 246. 
" Long- Leaved, 253. 
" Northern Scrub, 246. 
" Pitch, 255. 
" Prickly, 295. 
" Red, 249. 
" Scrub, 251. 
" Short-Leaved, 254. 
" Spruce, 254. 
" Southern Yellow, 253. 
" Table-Mountain, 295. 
" Torch, 255. 
" Weymouth, 225. 
" White, 225. 
" Yellow, 254. 
Plane-Tree, 47. 
Plum, Canada, 44. 
" " 161. 

" Date, 233. 
" Horse, 161. 
" Wild, 163. 
" Red, 44. 
" " Yellow, 44. 
Poison Wood, 138. 
Poplar, 83. 

" Balsam, 70. 

" Carolina, 74. 

" Downy, 70. 

M Heart-Leaved Balsam, 72. 

" Lombardy, 273. 

" Necklace, 74. 

" River, 74. 

" Silver-Leaf , 271. 

" White, 238. 

M 27I. 

QUCERITRON, 245. 



INDEX TO ENGLISH NAMES. 



37 



Red Bud, 113. 
Rowan Tree, 140. 
" * 141. 

Sassafras, 263. 

" Swamp, 39. 

Savin, 299. 
Service-Berry, 269. 

" Tree, American, 140. 
Shad-Bush, 270. 
Sheep Berry, 82. 
Silver Bell Tree, 114. 
Snowberry, 262. 

Snowdrop Tree, Four-Winged, 114. 
Sorrel-Tree, 171. 
Sour-Wood, 171. 
Spruce, Black, 227. 

" Norway, 260. 

" Red, 258. 

" White, 229. 
Stag-Bush, 285. 
Stump Tree, 211. 
Sugar-Berry, 126. 
" Tree, 197. 
Sumac, Chinese, 289. 

" Coral, 138. 

" Poison, 88. 

" Scarlet, 289. 

" Smooth Upland, 289. 

" Staghom, 287. 
Sycamore, 48. 

" False, 204. 

Tacamahac, 70. 
Tamarack, 105. 
Thorn, Black, 165. 

" Cockspur, 169. 

" Common, 167. 

" Dwarf, 236. 

" Dotted-Fruited, 167. 

" Large-Fruited, 167. 

" Long-Spined, 165. 

" Newcastle, 169. 

" Pear, 165. 



Thorn, Scarlet, 163. 

" Three- Flowered, 119. 
Tulip Tree, 186. 
Tupelo, 40. 

" Water, 42. 
Tree-of-Heaven, 289. 

Umbrella-Tree, 108 

Viburnum, Sweet, 82. 
Vinegar Tree, 287. 

Wahoo, 122, 
Wahoo, 156. 
Walnut, Black, 212. 

" White, 213. 

" White, 216. 
Whistle-wood, 153. 
Whitewood, 153. 
White-wood, 186. 
Willow, Almond, 56. 

* American Bay, 57. 
" Bebb's, 59. 

Black, 54. 

" Brittle, 68, 

" Crack, 68. 

Glossy Broad-Leaved, 57. 

" Hoop, 65. 

" Huntington, 65. 

" Long-Beaked, 59. 

" Ochre-Flowered, 59. 

" Peach- Leaved, 56. 

" Ring, 62. 

* Scythe-Leaved, 56. 
" Shining, 57. 

" Silky, 62. 

" Western Black, 56. 

" White, 65. 

" Weeping, 62. 

" Yellow, 66. 
Winterberry, Virginia, 44. 
Witch-Hazel, 171. 

Yellow Wood, American, 210. 
" Kentucky, 210. 



Index to Latin Names. 



Abies balsamea, 231. 
Abies Fraseri, 232. 

Acer Japonicum atropurpureum, 204. 
" Negundo, 90. 
" nigrum, 198. 
" Pennsylvanicum, 201. 
" platanoides, 204. 
" Pseudo-Platanus, 204. 
M rubrum, 183. 
" saccharinum, 86. 
" Saccharum, 197. 
" spicatum, 202. 
jEsculus Californica, 149. 
" glabra, 147. 
" Hippocastanum, 291. 
" octandra, 146. 
" w var. hybrida, 147. 

" Pavia, 295. 
" rubicunda, 295. 
Ailanthus glandulosa, 289. 
Alnus incana, 50. 
" rugosa, 52. 
Amelanchier alnifolia, 270. 

" Botrgapium, 270. 

" Canadensis, 269. 

Amygdalus Persica, 270. 
Asimina triloba, ill. 
Azalea arborescens, 152. 
" nudiflora, 153. 
" viscosa, 153. 

BETULA LENTA, I77. 

" lutea, 179. 



Betula nigra, 48. 

" papyrifera, 175. 

" pendula, 276. 

" populifolia, 275. 
Broussonetia papyrifera, 130. 

CAPPARIS JAMAICENSIS, 112. 
Carpinus Caroliniana, 52. 
Castanea dentata, 173. 
** pumila, 174. 
Catalpa Catalpa, 195. 
" speciosa, 196. 
Celtis occidentalis, 126. 
Cercis Canadensis, 113. 
Chamaecyparis thyoides, 101. 
Chionanthus Virginica, 80. 
Cladrastis lutea, 210. 
Cornus alternifolia, 194. 
" candid issi ma, 195. 
" circinata, 195. 
" florida, 192. 
M stolonifera, 195. 
Corylus Americana, 181. 

" rostrata, 183. 
Crataegus coccinea, 163. 
" Crus-Galli, 169. 
M macracantha, 165. 
" punctata, 167. 
M tomentosa, 165. 
" triflora, 119. 
" uniflora, 236. 

DlOSPYROS VlRGINIAKA, 233. 



INDEX TO LATIN NAMES. 



3* 



Fagus Americana, 174. 

" sylvatica, 175. 

" 4I foliis atrorubentibus, 

l 7S> 

Ficus Sycomorus, 48. 
Fraxinus Americana, 220. 

" Biltmoreana, 142. 

44 lanceolata, 97. 

44 nigra, 92. 

44 Pennsylvanica, 95. 

44 quadrangulata, 223. 



Gleditsia triancanthos, 209. 
Gymnocladus dioica, 211. 



Hamamelis Virginiana, 171. 


Hicoria alba, 214. 


<< 


aquatica, 90. 





glabra, 291. 


CI 


laciniosa, 218. 





microcarpa, 220. 


M 


minima, 89. 


4( 


ovata, 216. 


Ilex monticola, 118. 


u 


opaca, 117. 


(< 


verticillata, 44. 



JUGLANS CINEREA, 213. 

44 nigra, 212. 
Juniperus communis, 297. 
" nana, 297. 
44 Virginiana, 299. 

Larix Europ^a, 107. 

44 laricina, 105. 
Liquidambar Styraciflua, 136. 
Liriodendron Tulipifera, 186. 

Magnolia acuminata, i 50. 
" cordata, 152. 
" fcetida, 37. 

44 tripetala, 108. 
44 Virginiana, 39. 



Malus angustifolia, 159. 
44 coronaria, 159. 

" Malus, 267. 
Mohrodendron Carolinum, 114. 
Morus alba, 130. 

" rubra, 128. 

Nyssa biflora, 42. 
" sylvatica, 40. 

Ostrya Virginiana, 276. 
Oxydendrum arboreum, 171. 

Picea Canadensis, 229. 
44 excelsa, 260. 
44 Mariana, 227. 
44 rubens, 258. 
Pinus divaricata, 246. 
" echinata, 254. 
44 palustris, 253. 
44 pungens, 295. 
" resinosa, 249. 
44 rigida, 255. 
" Strobus, 225. 
44 Virginiana, 251. 
Platanus occidentalis, 47. 
Populus alba, 271. 

" angustifolia, 115. 

" balsamifera, 70. 

" candicans, 72. 

" deltoides, 74. 

" dilatata, 273. 

" grandidentata, 183. 

" hcterophylla, 70. 

" tremuloides, 238. 
Prunus Americana, 44. 

" Mahabel, 157. 

" nigra, 161. 

" Pennsylvanica, 156. 

" serotima, 265. 

" subcordata, 163. 

" Virginiana, 46. 



3io 



INDEX TO LATIN NAMES. 



Quercus acuminata, 283. 

alba, 188. 
" coccinea, 243. 
" digitata, 242. 

laurifolia, 80. 
" macrocarpa, 132. 
" Marylandica, 280. 
" minor, 278. 
" palustris, 133. 
" Phellos, 78. 
" platanoides, 76. 
" Prinus, 282. 
" rubra, 191. 
" velutina, 245. 
" Virginiana, 240. 

Rhus glabra, 289. 
" hirta, 287. 
" integrifolia, 234. 
" Metopium, 138. 
" toxicodendron, 138. 
" Vernix, 88. 

Rob ini a hispida, 208. 
Robinia, Neo-Mexicana, 140. 

" Pseudacacia, 205. 

" viscosa, 207. 

Salix alba, 65. 

" M argentea, 66, 

" " ccerulea, 66. 

" " vitellini, 66. 

Salix amygdaloides, 56. 

" Babylonica, 62. 

" " annularis, 65. 

" Bebbiana, 59. 



Salix fragilis, 68. 
" lucida, 57. 
* n, 'gra, 54- 

" falcata, 56. 
" sericea, 62. 
Sambucus Canadensis, 146. 

var. Mexicana, 
144. 
Sassafras Sassafras, 263. 
Sorbus Americana, 140. 
" ancuparia, 141. 
" sambucifolia, 141. 
Staphylea Bolanderi, 144. 
Symphoricarpos Symphoricarpos, 262. 

Taxodium distichum, 99. 
Thuja occidentalis, 103. 
Tilia Americana, 153. 

" Europaea, 156. 

" heterophylla, 156. 

pubescens, 156. 
Tsuga Canadensis, 226. 

" Caroliniana, 227. 

Ulmus alata, 122. 
M Americana, 120. 
" campestris, 124. 
M fulva, 122. 
" racemosa, 126. 
" suberosa, 126. 

Viburnum acerifolium, 285. 
" alnifolium, 83. 

" Lentago, 82. 

" Opulus, 83. 

" prunifolium, 285. 



Index to Technical Terms. 



Abruptly Pinnate, 5. 
Alburnum, 2. 
Alternate Leaves^ 3. 
Ament, 10. 
Anther, 14. 
Arboreous Stems,*2. 
Arrow-shaped, 7. 
Auriculate, 7. 
Axillary inflorescence, 9. 

Bark, cellular, 2. 

" fibrous, 2. 

" inner, 2. 

outer, 2. 
Banner, 14. 
Bell-shaped, 13. 
Blade, 3. 
Buds, 2-3. 

" adventitious, 3. 

" axillary, 2. 

" Latent, 3. 

" Lateral, 3. 

" Leaf, 2. 

" Naked, 3. 

" Scaly, 3. 

11 Terminal, 1-2. 
Butterfly-shaped, 14. 
Bracts, 10. 

Campanulate, 13. 
Calyx, 12-13. 
Capitulum, 10. 
Capsule, 17. 



Catkin, 10. 
Cleft, 8. 

Complete Flower, II. 
Compound Leaves, 5. 
Cone, 17. 
Cordate, 7. 
Corky Layer, 2. 
Corolla, 12-13. 
Corymb, 19. 
Cotyledons, 17. 
Crenate, 7. 
Cross-fertilization, 15. 
Cyme, 10. 

Determinate, 9. 
Dioecious, II. 
Dicotyledonous, 18. 
Divided, 8. 
Drupe, 17. 
Dry Fruits, 17. 

Elliptical, 6. 
Embryo, 17. 
Endogenous Stems, 2. 
Endosperm, 17. 
Entire Leaves, 7. 
Exogenous Stems, 2. 
Exserted Stamens, 14. 

Feather-veined, 4. 
Fertilization, 15. 
Fertilizing organs, 14. 
Filament, 14. 



312 



INDEX TO TECHNICAL TERMS. 



Fleshy Fruits, 16. 
Funnel-Form, 13. 

Gamopetalous, 13. 
Gamosepalous, 12. 
Glabrous, 8. 
Glaucous, 8. 
Green Layer, 2. 

Head, 10. 
Heart-shaped, 7. 
Heart-wood, 2. 
Hypocotyl, 17. 

Imperfect Flowers, ii. 
Incised, 8. 

Included Stamens, 14. 
Incomplete Flowers, 12. 
Indeterminate 9. 
Inflorescence, 9. 
Inner Layer, 2. 
Irregular Flowers, 12. 

Keel, 14. 
Kernel, 17. 
Key Fruits, 17. 
Kidney-shaped, 7. 

Labiate, 13. 
Lanceolate, 6. 
Leaf-buds, 2. 
Leaves, 3-9. 
Legume, 17. 
Liber, 2. 
Linear, 6. 
Lobed, 8. 

Midrib, 3. 
Midvein, 3. 

Monocotyledonous, 18. 
Monoecious, 1 1. 
Multiple Primary Roots, 2. 



Netted-veined Leaves, 4. 
Neutral Flowers, II. 
Nucleus, 17. 
Nut, 17. 

Obcordate, 7. 

Oblanceolate, 6. 

Oblong, 6. 

Obovate, 6. 

Odd-pinnate, 5. 

Opposite, 3. 

Orbicular, 7. 

Organs of Reproduction, I. 

Organs of Vegetation, 1. 

Outer Layer, 2. 

Oval, 6. 

Ovary, 15. 

Ovate, 6. 

Ovules, 15. 

Palmately compound, 6. 

Palmately-veined, 5. 

Panicle, 9. 

Papilionaceous, 14. 

Parallel-veined, 5. 

Parted, 13. 

Pedicel, 9. 

Peduncle, 9. 

Peltate, 7. 

Perfect Flowers, II. 

Petals, 13. 

Petiole, 3. 

Pinnate, 5. 

Pinnately-veined, 4. 

Pistil, 15. 

Pistillate Flowers, IT.. 

Plumule, 18. 

Pod, 17. 

Pollen, 14. 

Polycotyledonous, 18. 

Polypetalous, 13. 

Polysepalous, 12. 



INDEX TO TECHNICAL TERMS. 



3*3 



Pome, 16. 
Pubescent, 8. 

Raceme, 9. 
Regular Flowers, 12. 
Reniform, 7. 
Ribs, 3. 
Root, 2. 
Rosaceous, 14. 

Sagittate, 7. 
Salver-shaped, 13. 
Samara, 17. 
Sap-wood, 2. 
Seed-bearing Organs, 15. 
Seeds, 15, 17. 
Seed Leaves, 17. 
Seed Vessels, 1 5. 
Self-fertilization, 16, 
Sepals, 12. 
Serrate, 8. 
Sessile, 9. 
Shield-shaped, 7, 
Simple Leaves, 5. 
Simple Primary Roots, 2. 
Sinuses, 8. 
Solitary, 9. 
Spatulate, 7. 



Spike, 10. 
Stamens, 14. 
Staminate Flowers, II* 
Standard, 14. 
Stigma, 15. 
Stipules, 3. 
Stone Fruit, 16. 
Strobile, 17. 
Style, 15. 
Suckers, 3. 

Terminal, 9. 
Thorns, 3. 
Thysus, 9. 
Tomentose, 8. 
Tubular, 13. 

Umbel, 10. 
Undulate, 7. 

Veins, 3. 
Veinlets, 4. 
Veinulets, 4. 

Wheel-Shaped, 13. 
Whorled, 3. 
Wings, 14.